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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine in immuno-inflammatory diseases.

MIF expressions have been detected in the head kidney, spleen, liver, brain, intestine, gill, heart, stomach, and muscle of E. awoara infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The mRNA levels observed in infected groupers were higher than those in healthy groupers. MIF, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 (IL-1) tissue levels have been measured by ELISA.

A significant increase in MIF, TNF-α, and IL-1 tissue levels have been found in the treatment groups compared with those in controls. MIF, TNF-α and IL-1 tissue levels in the spleen, head kidney, intestine, and liver of E. awoara during the challenge trial with V. parahaemolyticus were significantly higher than those in controls. There was evidence of functions of MIF in a positive feedback loop with TNF-α and IL-1 that could perpetuate the inflammatory process in grouper infected with V. parahaemolyticus.

In conclusion, these results indicated that MIF was related to pathogen-induced immune response.



Only Half of Chromosome is DNA

Posted by star on 2016-12-28 18:56:38
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DNA makes up only half of the material inside chromosomes, according to a new study published in the journal Molecular Cell. Up to 47% of their structure is a mysterious sheath that surrounds the genetic material.

A research team headed by University of Edinburgh scientists developed a precise microscopy method that allows them to study the structure of chromosomes in detail.

The method, called 3D-CLEM, combines light and scanning electron microscopy with computational modeling software to produce high-resolution 3D images of chromosomes.

“3D-CLEM has allowed us to determine the length, width, surface area, volume, and DNA packing density of all normal human chromosomes and to determine the DNA content of a small synthetic artificial chromosome,” the authors explained.

“The imaging technique we have developed to study chromosomes is truly groundbreaking,” added study co-lead author Dr. Daniel Booth, of the University of Edinburgh’s School of Biological Sciences.

“Defining the structure of all 46 human chromosomes for the first time has forced us to reconsider the idea that they are composed almost exclusively of chromatin, an assumption that has gone largely unchallenged for almost 100 years.”

Analysis of the images reveals that material containing DNA and supporting proteins — known as chromatin — accounts for between 53 and 70% of the total contents of chromosomes.

The remaining 30 to 47% is composed of the chromosome periphery.

While the precise function of this sheath is unknown, Dr. Booth and co-authors suggest it may keep chromosomes isolated from one another during the key process of cell division.

“This so-called chromosome periphery could help to prevent errors from occurring when cells divide — a hallmark of some forms of cancer and diseases associated with birth defects,” they said.......

ECTO-NOX

Posted by star on 2016-11-13 21:46:32
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ECTO-NOX family comprise NAD(P)H oxidases of plants and animals exhibiting both oxidative and protein disulfide isomerase-like activities. it is named because of their cell surface location.

The two biochemical activities, hydroquinone [NAD(P)H] oxidation and protein disulfide–thiol interchange alternate, a property unprecedented in the biochemical literature.

At least two forms of ECTO-NOX activities have been distinguished on the basis of response to ormones, growth factors, capsaicin (8-methyl-Nvanillyl-6-noneamide), and certain other quinone-site inhibitors or potential quinone-site inhibitors with anticancer activity.

A tumor-associated ECTO-NOX (tNOX) is cancer-specific and drug-responsive. The constitutive ECTO-NOX (CNOX) is ubiquitous and refractory to drugs. The physiological substrate for the oxidative activity appears to be hydroquinones of the plasma membrane such as reduced coenzyme Q10. ECTO-NOX proteins are growth-related and drive cell enlargement.

CNOX proteins are widely distributed and exhibit activity oscillations with period lengths of 24 min. tNOX proteins are cancer specific and exhibit oscillations with period lengths of about 22 min, shorter than those of CNOX.

tNOX is found in the sera of cancer patients with a wide variety of cancers including breast, prostate, lung and ovarian cancers, leukemias, and lymphomas. But not found in the serum of healthy volunteers or patients with disorders other than cancer. 

 

Wuhan EIAab Science Co., devotes to the research and development of lifescience. The company offers the ELISA Kit (Cat No.E0381h

ASC has contrary functions in tumor genesis

Posted by star on 2016-10-12 18:24:12
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Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) is an adaptor protein encoded by the PYCARD gene. ASC was originally named because it triggered apoptosis in certain tumors. It contains two protein–protein interaction domains: a pyrin domain (PYD) at N-terminal and a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) at C-terminal.

ASC increases mitochondrial permeability, as well as cytochrome c release, resulting in activation of cell apoptosis initiator caspase-9 and apoptosis executioner caspase-3.

As an important mediate protein of inflammasome, ASC is highly expressed in immune cells, especially in neutrophils and monocytes.  

ASC acts as a tumor suppressor gene in certain tumor cell lines such as promyelocytic leukemia HL-60. However, in melanoma, its role is more complicated. ASC switch from an anti-tumor factor in primary melanoma to a pro-tumorigenic factor in metastatic melanoma. It inhibits NF-κB activity in primary melanoma, whereas in metastatic melanoma, it enhances NF-κB activity. The influence of ASC on NF-κB is either suppressive or active depends on the cellular context. As a consequence, it plays stage-dependent dual roles in human melanoma tumorigenesis.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co., devotes to the research and development of lifescience. The company offers the ELISA Kit (Cat No.E3198h) for quantitative detection of Human ASC.

 

References

Liu W, Luo Y, Dunn J H, et al. Dual role of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) in tumorigenesis of human melanoma.[J]. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2013, 133(2):518-27.

Masumoto J; Taniguchi S; Ayukawa K; Sarvotham H; Kishino T; Niikawa N; Hidaka E; Katsuyama T; Higuchi T; Sagara J. ASC......

C-reactive protein (CRP)

Posted by star on 2016-10-08 01:08:17
Hits:249

C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein that synthesized by liver cells in inflammatory response to invasion or tissue damage.

CRP was found in 1930 by Tillet and Francis. Initially, they observed that some acute patients’ serum could react with streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide. CRP was later confirmed to be a kind of protein that can react with C-polysaccharide substance. Thus it was named C-reactive protein.

CRP is a part of the body's non-specific immune mechanism, and used mainly as a marker of inflammation. CRP can bind to the phosphocholine on micro-organisms, and assist complement to bind to foreign pathogen, enhancing phagocytosis by macrophages as a consequence.

The main biological function of CRP is activating complement and mononuclear phagocyte system via binding with ligand such as dead cell, or phosphoryl choline form invasive bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Pathological substance and pathogen can be eliminated in this way. In this procedure, first, foreign substance is identified and activating the complement system. Second, tonal effect and phagocytosis function is enhanced. Third, phagocytic cells and platelet activating factor (RAF) reduce the inflammatory response. At last, the necrotic tissue was removed.

In inflammation, the CRP value raise along with the inflammation progress and reach a plateau at 48h. Then the lesions subside with the recovery of organization, structure and function. This reaction is not affected by radiotherapy, chemotherapy or corticosteroids. As a result, the detection of CRP in clinic application is quite widespread, including acute infectious disease, infection after the operation of the monitoring diagnosis and differential diagnosis, antibiotic curative effect observation, disease detection and prognosis course, etc.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co., Ltd is strong in technology, product, dedicated to provide quality and reliable products for all users. ......

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