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           Tumor metabolic reprogramming and abnormal cell cycle regulation are two important characteristics of tumors. However, it is unclear how the two are coordinated to promote tumor cell proliferation and tumor development. This team found for the first time that in tumor cells, Plk1, an important cyclic regulatory protein, regulates the activity of G6PD, a key metabolic enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway, and thus promotes the synthesis of biological macromolecules and the proliferation of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Further mechanistic studies revealed that Plk1 modifies G6PD by binding and phosphorylation, resulting in an increase of G6PD-forming dimers, thereby promoting enzyme activity and the entire pentose phosphate pathway. Enhanced pentose phosphate pathway for tumor cell cycle progression and the occurrence and development of tumors have an important role in promoting. This study, for the first time, uncovered the new function of Plk1 in the regulation of biological macromolecule synthesis, revealed a new mechanism of coordination between metabolic reprogramming and cycle regulation and promotion of rapid proliferation of tumor cells, and potential therapeutic targets for clinical tumor Guiding significance.

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         Obesity threatens to shorten the human lifespan by 5–20 years and refers to many aspects of biology ,rather than that was previously appreciated, What’s worse is the obesity-induced diseases. Currently, therapy for curing obesity is limited by fully understanding of the mechanism for controlling obesity.

         A promising potential approach for treating obesity is activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). In contrast to energy-storing white adipose tissue (WAT), BAT contains many thermogenic mitochondria which secretes uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) that converted chemical energy into heat, Recent studies have defined the role of the adipose innate immune system in the regulation of metabolism and control of body weight, Invariant natural killer T ( iNKT ) cells are one such innate immune cell type with an important role in weight and glycemic control.

         iNKT cells are key player in metabolic regulation, iNKT cells are innate lipid sensors , using their prototypic ligand  a-galactosylceramide  (aGalCer) to being activtion can lead to weight loss and glycemic control. Here, iNKT activation induced fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) production and thermo-genic browning of white fat. Complete metabolic analysis revealed that iNKT cell activation induced increased body temperature and fatty acid oxidation, without affecting food intake or activity. FGF21 induction played a major role in iNKT cell-induced weight loss, as FGF21 null mice lost significantly less weight after aGalCer treatment. The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist-liraglutide also activated iNKT cells in humans and mice. In iNKT-deficient mice, liraglutide    promoted satiety but failed to induce FGF21, which resulting in less weight loss. These findings indicates an iNKT cell-FGF21 axis may defines a new immune-mediated pathway that could ......

         Chinese scientists through quantitative proteomics technology found two kinds of non-coding RNA regulation of liver cancer cell proliferation molecule mechanism.

According to reports, non-coding RNA refers to the RNA molecules can not encode the protein. Regulatory non-coding RNA mainly includes microRNA, long-chain non-coding RNA and circular RNA.

         Ge Feng Research Group, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences for many years committed to the use of quantitative proteomics technology reveals the non-coding RNA molecular regulation network and its mechanism of action. CDR1as is a circular RNA molecule that is involved in the development of a variety of cancer and neurological diseases. Ge Feng research group constructed a CDR1as protein in liver cancer cell regulatory network. It was found that CDR1as can regulate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor by targeting miR-7 molecules and further affect the proliferation of hepatoma cells, revealing the new molecular mechanism of CDR1as in hepatoma cells.


         HOTAIR is a kind of long-chain non-coding RNA closely related to tumorigenesis. Ge's team built the network of HOTAIR molecules in liver cancer cells. The study found that the promotion of HOTAIR on the proliferation of liver cancer cells through the regulation of opioid growth factor receptor expression to achieve this regulatory mechanism may be ubiquitous in all types of cancer cells.

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Novel effector Treg cell subsets was found

Posted by star on 2017-12-20 17:18:58

         Regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for the maintenance of autoimmunity homeostasis and are also important reason for the formation of tumor-suppressive microenvironments. It has been reported that Treg cells undergo an activation process similar to that of CD4 T cells and eventually differentiate into effector Treg cells, which can secrete inhibitory cytokines and exert immunosuppressive functions. TGF-β, IL-10 is a commonly studied immunosuppressive factor. In recent years, studies have found that Treg cells secrete a new type of inhibitory cytokine IL-35, which has been shown to have strong immunosuppressive capacity both in vivo and in vitro and can cause infectious immunity in infectious diseases and tumors Tolerance. However, due to the lack of suitable antibodies, it is still very difficult to detect IL-35-secreting cells. Known studies are based on the detection of the overall cellular level by RT-PCR and ELISA, but lack of ability to secrete IL-35 Cell deep and detailed understanding.

        In order to further study the inhibitory function of Treg cells, a group of reporter gene mice (Ebi3-Dre-Thy1.1 mice) of IL-35 were constructed using a BAC transgenic technique by a research team led by Xuyu Zhou, Institute of Microbiology of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The expression of Thy 1.1 on the cell surface can be used to indicate the intracellular IL-35 secretion and the function of IL-35 secreting cells can be studied in vivo by injection of Thy 1.1 antibody. The reporter found that the IL-35 secreting cells in mice mainly derived from thymus-derived tTreg cells. Further analysis of the surface molecules and transcriptional profiling revealed that IL-35-Treg secreting IL-35 and IL-10-Treg secreting IL-10 are two groups of c......

     In a new study, researchers from Britain and South Korea using genome editing techniques CRISPR/Cas9 reveals OCT4 in human embryonic development of the first few days. The technology could help people better understand our biology characteristics of early development.

     The researchers used CRISPR/Cas9 block OCT4 gene expression, under normal circumstances, in the first few days of this gene in human embryonic development is active. The research found that the OCT4 are needed to correct formation the blastocyst in human embryonic development. Researchers use mice embryonic and human embryonic stem cells as the research object, make out standing OCT4 inactivation, they use the CRISPR/Cas9 change the DNA for 41human embryo, after 7 days, the embryo development stops, expect the embryo, OCT4 is considered also play an important role in stem cell biology. Pluripotent stem cells could become any type of cells, and they can be obtained from embryos, or let the skin cells and other cells was induced by reprogramming, human embryonic stem cells from developing in human embryonic has a higher level of OCT for that part.
     Researchers believe that produce and use of pluripotent stem cell technology is a great achievement, but the cells are still can't understand how to play a role. To learn more about the different gene that how to cause cells to produce and maintain   pluripotency, will help us to more understand production and the use of stem cells.


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