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Born in June to August is more susceptible to cardiovascular disease

Posted by star on 2018-05-29 18:43:43
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    A biological study recently was published in the Scientific Report states that American scientists screened 129,778 dogs for cardiovascular data. They found that dogs born in June to August were more susceptible to cardiovascular disease than dogs born in other months. The dog's heart is considered to be an effective physiological model of the human heart because they both have extremely similar cardiovascular systems.

    Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease refers to ischaemia or hemorrhage in the heart, brain and systemic tissues due to hyperlipidemia, blood viscosity, atherosclerosis, and hypertension, which is currently ranks first in all causes of death.

    The researchers analyzed cardiovascular data from 253 different breeds of 129,778 dogs and found that in breeds without genetic susceptibility to cardiovascular disease, dogs born in June to August have higher risk of vascular disease than dogs were born in other months. However, the birth season does not appear to affect dogs that are already genetically susceptible to cardiovascular disease.

    The research team emphasized that because the relationship between birth season and cardiovascular disease is more pronounced in dogs without genetic susceptibility, this effect is likely due to environmental factors. One of these factors may be selective breeding, in which dogs that are susceptible to cardiovascular disease are more closely "monitored" than dogs that are less susceptible to disease. Researchers believe that there may also be genetic factors that make dogs less susceptible to cardiovascular disease are more vulnerable to the adverse environmental effects associated with the birth season.

    Dogs and humans have similar cardiovascular systems, and because the......

NAFLD-HCC treatment for new target - SQLE

Posted by star on 2018-05-28 18:34:00
Hits:40

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD) has become the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in developed countries. Patients with NAFLD related HCC had a shorter survival period and a later stage of tumor staging, and the possibility of liver transplantation was lower. But the mechanisms that led to its formation are largely unknown and targeted therapies are currently unavailable.

    RNA sequencing analysis of NAFLD-HCC samples showed that squalene epoxidase (SQLE) was the highest abnormal metabolic gene in patients with NAFLD-HCC. The expression of Sqle gene in mouse liver cells has accelerated the development of high fat and high cholesterol diet induced liver cancer. SQLE plays its carcinogenic role through its metabolites, cholesterol esters and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). Increased SQLE expression promotes biosynthesis of cholesterol esters, thereby inducing the growth of NAFLD-HCC cells. SQLE increase NADP + / NADPH (NADP +) ratio, triggered a series of events, including oxidative stress induced DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) express, DNMT3A mediated epigenetic inhibit PTEN, and AKT-activation of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin).

    In human NAFLD-HCC and HCC, SQLE is overexpressed, and its expression is related to poor prognosis. Terbinafine, the us food and drug administration approved antifungal drugs targeting SQLE, significantly inhibited the NAFLD - HCC and HCC cells induced by SQL NAFLD - HCC cell growth, and in the xenograft model and SQLE transgenic mice suppress tumor development.By inhibiting tumor growth through terbinafine, and lowering the concentration of cholesterol esters, the expression of PTEN was restored, and AKT-mTOR was suppressed, which was consistent with the blocking of SQLE function.In general, we established SQLE as the oncogen......


    Effector T cell migration into an inflammatory tissue can aggravate tissue damage and lead to inflammatory disease progression. Researchers at the university of Pennsylvania found that lack of joint protein CRK and CRK - like T cells will appear adhesion, chemotaxis drop characteristics, and through the experiment CRK protein family to selectively control the ability of cell adhesion and migration to effect locus, and put forward in view of the CRK protein family or can be developed for the treatment of graft versus host disease (GVHD).

    Researchers using conditional knockout mice, found that in the absence of CRK and CRK - like proteins, T cell adhesion and chemotaxis all fell, and found the CRK and CRK - like these two kinds of protein can exist a large number of total redundancy, either through expression of the two can lead to the loss caused by T cells function defect restoration. The researchers found that CRK was able to activate the integrin regulatory GTPase RAP1 with the synergistic effect of C3G and adhesion host molecule CASL with RAP guanine nucleotide exchange factor. CRK protein is essential for the migration of effector T cells to inflammatory sites, but it does not affect the migration of effector T cells to lymphoid organs.

    This research is of great significance for the development of treatment methods for GVHD.



Infusions of young blood tested in patients with dementia

Posted by star on 2018-05-27 19:17:46
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   Alzheimer's disease is a neurological disease that severely affects life and work and attaches aged people mostly. Its cause and pathogenesis have not been cleared now, and there is no effective methods to cure this disease. But recent study has given us some inspiration.

   The researchers tested people aged between 54 and 86 with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease. The team gave the 18 subjects weekly infusions for four weeks. They studied either a saline placebo or plasma — blood from which the red cells have been removed — from blood donors aged 18–30. During the study, the team monitored the patients to assess their cognitive skills,emotion control and general abilities to organize their lives independently.The results suggest the procedure is safe and predict it could even improve the ability of people with dementia to undertake everyday skills such as shopping or preparing a meal.

   Researchers who conducted the trial and others caution that the sample size is too small that based on just 18 people to be fully believe,and therefore are only the first step in exploring this type of treatment. Blood-transfusion trials are controversial because the active molecules in plasma that seem to lead to the purported effects are unknown. The effects of young blood on cognition have not been replicated by an independent group, and there has never been a test with a mouse model of Alzheimer’s,frequently exposing older people to foreign plasma may be unsafe, because hyperactivation of their immune systems could lead to autoimmune or inflammatory disease.




    On April 18, 2018, a paper named “Squalene epoxidase drives NAFLD-induced hepatocellular carcinoma and is a pharmaceutical target” published on the journal of Science Translational Medicine. The researchers performed RNA-seq analysis of 17 paired NAFLD-HCC tumor and adjacent normal tissues. They found that among up-regulated metabolic genes, SQLE was a top outlier gene and it was overexpressed in 16 of 17 paired NAFLD-HCC samples, so they did the experiment for SQLE.

    It is reported that SQLE locates in the microsomes of the endoplasmic reticulum. With the help of the action of molecular oxygen and reduced coenzyme II, SQLE can catalyze the conversion of squalene to epoxidized squalene. The epoxidized squalene is an intermediate product for the conversion of squalene to lanosterol. And lanosterol is a precursor in the process of the conversion of squalene to cholesterol in the body, which illustrates the important role of SQLE in cholesterol production. Via a series of cell and animal experiments, the researchers found that overexpression of SQLE would promote the accumulation of cholesteryl esters in liver cells and increase the level of oxidative stress. The increase in oxidative stress levels would lead to the change of the level of intracellular methylation which would activate The PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway thus promoted the occurrence and growth of liver cancer.

    The research team then used terbinafine to suppress the level of SQLE and further validated their experimental results. This research provides a new experimental basis and direction for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD-related liver cancer.

    Welcome to choose and buy the product SQLE protein, SQLE antibody or SQLE kit.

 



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