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Posted by star on 2016-09-29 00:11:58

Homocysteine (HCY), a non-protein α-amino acid with the formula HSCH2CH2CHC(NH2)CO2H, is a homologue of the amino acid cysteine, differing by an additional methylene bridge (-CH2-). It can be recycled into methionine or converted into cysteine with the aid of certain B-vitamins. HCY is not only obtained from the diet, but also biosynthesized from methionine via a multi-step process.

The normal value of HCY is 5.0-13.9μmol/L in population. High serum concentration of HCY more than 15µmol/L is termed hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY), which is an independent risk factor for several disorders including cardiovascular diseases, stroke and osteoporotic fractures. Lack of vitamins such as folate, pyridoxine (B6) or cobalt amine (B12) will lead HCY levels rise, which is a result of biochemical reactions. Supplementary pyridoxine, folic acid, cobalt amine or trimethyl glycine will decrease concentration of HCY in the blood.

Cardiovascular disease is a responsible for 40-50% of all deaths in patients with chronic kidney disease. The kidney is the main organ where HCY is removed and further metabolized. Elevated mean serum HCY level is associated with an accelerated decline in renal function. Also, it is an independent risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease in the general population.

The HCY levels in the body is called H (H Score), H value can predict the risk of a heart attack or stroke, as well as the risk of Alzheimer's disease more accurately when compared with gene screen. HCY levels are typically higher in men than that in women, and increase with ageing.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co.,Ltd is strong in technology and product. We dedicated to provide quality and reliable products for all users. The HCY ELISA Kit for General Homocysteine (Cat No.E0772Ge) can be used to detect the target level in samples with high sensiti......


Posted by star on 2016-09-05 23:56:55

Testosterone is a steroid hormone of the androgen group. It was first extracted from bull in 1935, and found in mammals, birds, and other vertebrates later on. Testosterone is secreted mainly by testicle or ovary, and adrenal gland also secretes a small amount of testosterone.

 Testosterone could maintain the strength and quality of muscle and the density and strength of bone. It could also give oneself a lift, and enhance physical effects. Testosterone may affect body systems and functions, such as blood formation, calcium homeostasis, bone mineralization, lipid metabolism, glucose metabolism and prostate growth. It is the primary male sex hormone and anabolic hormone. It has an important impact on health, including increasing libido, strength, immune function, and protecting from osteoporosis, either to male or female.

Testosterone could be used in many fields. It regulates acute HPA response under dominance challenge, and the population of thromboxane A2 receptors on megakaryocytes and platelets, which might be the platelet aggregation in human. It is necessary for normal sperm development, and cancer prevention. Recently, researches have shown that there are conflicting results concerning the importance of testosterone in maintaining cardiovascular health. Nevertheless, maintaining normal testosterone levels in elderly men has shown to reduce cardiovascular disease risk.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co., Ltd is strong in technology, product, dedicated to provide quality and reliable products for all users. The Testosterone ELISA Kit (Cat No.E0458Ge) is high sensitivity and specificity.

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

Posted by star on 2016-09-05 23:15:01

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine which produced naturally by macrophages in bacterial infection or other immune response. It is a small molecule protein that could directly cause tumor cell death or cooperate with interferon. TNF can be divided into two types according to their origin and structure, named TNF-α and TNF-β respectively. TNF-α was produced by macrophages accompanied with LPS′s stronger stimulant mainly, and might also secreted by T cells or NK cells in some stimulating factor (eg. PMA). While TNF-β was mainly produced by activated T cells, and with the stimulation of antigen and mitogen could produce high levels.

The human TNF gene (TNF-α) was cloned in 1985. It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kb and contains 4 exons. The last exon codes for more than 80% of the secreted protein. The 3' UTR of TNF-α contains an AU-rich element (ARE). TNF is primarily produced as a 212-amino acid-long typeⅡtrans-membrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. From this membrane-integrated form the soluble homotrimeric cytokine (sTNF) is released via proteolytic cleavage by the metalloprotease TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE, also called ADAM17). The soluble 51 kDa trimeric sTNF tends to dissociate at concentrations below the nanomolar range, thereby losing its bioactivity. The secreted form of human TNF-α takes on a triangular pyramid shape, and weighs around 17kDa. Both the secreted and the membrane bound forms are biologically active, although the specific function of each is controversial. But, both forms do have overlapping and distinct biology activities. The common house mouse TNF-α and human TNF are structurally different. The 17kDa TNF protomer (185-amino acid-long) is composed of two antiparallel β-pleated sheets with antiparallel β-strands, forming a 'jelly roll' β-structure, which......

Osteoactivin, OA

Posted by star on 2016-09-05 02:26:36

In 1995, GPNMB gene was cloned from metastatic melanoma cells, which over-expression had been showed to reduce tumor growth, so it is known as glycoprotein (trans-membrane) non-metastatic melanoma protein B. Later, it was also found in osteopetrosis animal model study in 2001, which is also named Osteoactivin (OA).

There are two subtypes of OA: one is non-glycosylated type I trans-membrane protein; the other is highly glycosylated secreted glycoprotein. OA is expressed with different levels in bone, liver, kidney and other tissues, and also has many biological functions, such as involved in a variety of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and other physiological processes. Research OA in different bone cells of autocrine or paracrine function, will further understand its role in bone metabolism, and provide new ideas for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of related diseases.

Research the over-expression of OA and OA on hepatic carcinoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis ability changes, further clarify the role of OA in the process of cell invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that OA can be used as a potential target for the treatment of hepatic cancer.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co., Ltd is strong in technology, product, dedicated to provide quality and reliable products for all users. The human Osteoactivin, (OA) ELISA Kit (Cat No.E2770h) is high sensitivity and specificity.

Detecting LTA with an ELISA Kit

Posted by star on 2016-08-30 02:26:08

Lipoteichoic acid, or LTA, is a chemical that is found in certain types of bacteria. It is commonly regarded as a harmful substance and medicines such as antibiotics are often developed to inhibit its contact with human cells. In studies with animals, LTA can lead to meningitis, arthritis, periodontal lesions, as well as producing other negative effects. Lab workers can detect the presence of LTA with specially formulated lipoteichoic acid ELISA kits.


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