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Acute Renal Failure Following Near-Drowning
Update time:2018-08-22 14:23:00   【 Font: Large  Medium Small

Introduction

Acute kidney injury associated with near-drowning (ND-AKI) has rarely been reported and its incidence among survivors is unknown. A patient with AKI and urine biomarkers indicating tubular injury led us to assess the occurrence and clinical characteristics of ND-AKI and to evaluate possible causative mechanisms.

 

Methods

We evaluated medical records of patients rescued from near-drowning in the Mediterranean Sea and treated in a tertiary-level medical center during 2000 to 2017.

 

Results

Ninety-five patients with the diagnosis of near-drowning in seawater were treated. Forty-two of these patients (43%) developed ND-AKI and 17 (18%) were classified as AKI Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes stages 2 to 3. ND-AKI was associated with the need for resuscitation and mechanical ventilation, with the calculated seawater volume ingestion (extrapolated from rising plasma sodium) and with the degree of acidemia, lactemia, and ventilatory failure. This series and 28 additional published cases of ND-AKI in the literature showed an overall male predisposition.

 

Conclusion

AKI is a common complication of near-drowning and is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Data analysis suggests a predominant role of hypoxic tubular injury due to systemic hypoxemia in ND-AKI, combined with intense sympathetic activity (reflected by tachyarrhythmias, hyperglycemia, and relative hypokalemia) and increased oxygen expenditure for intensified distal tubular sodium transport. Androgen-related reduced renal vasodilatory capacity may explain male gender predominance.


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Source:Kidney International Reports      by Y Gorelik, S Darawshi, H Yaseen, et al.
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