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Cyclooxygenase-1 Serves a Vital Hepato-Protective Function in Chemically Induced Acute Liver Injury
Update time:2014-12-25 22:15:00   【 Font: Large  Medium Small

Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) is the constitutive form of the COX enzyme family, which produces bioactive lipids called prostanoids. Although the role of COX-2 in liver diseases has been studied, little is known about the function of COX-1 in liver injury. We aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of COX-1 in acute liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was administered to induce acute liver injury in wild-type or COX-1-deficient mice. Both genetic (partially or completely) deletion of COX-1 expression and pharmacological inhibition of COX-1 activity in mice exacerbated acute liver injury induced by CCl4, revealing the (1) histopathological changes and increased serum levels of aminotransferases; (2) oxidative
stress in the liver partly through the action of cytochrome P450 2E1-dependent pathway; (3) enhanced inflammatory and chemoattractive responses with increased number of activated macrophages; and (4) increased apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. These pathological changes were partly through the modulation of transcription factor-dependent pathways (eg, NF- jB and C/EBP- a). Pre-treatment with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) or 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitor in homozygous COX-1 knockout mice significantly ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatic injury. In addition, level of hepato-protective molecules (eg, OSM and OSMR) and associated liver regeneration pathway were significantly inhibited by the deficiency of COX-1 but restored by the addition of PGE2 or the inhibition of 5-LO. Furthermore, the alternative arachidonic acid metabolism pathway of 5-LO, which induced additional inflammation in the liver, was activated in response to the deficiency of COX-1. In conclusion, basal expression of COX-1 is essential for the protection of liver against chemical-induced hepatotoxicity and required for hepatic homeostatic maintenance.

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Source:Toxicological sciences      by J Xiao, EC. Liong, H Huang, et al.
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