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Abstract

Background

Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible defense gene which plays a significant role in inflammation. HO-1 protects cells and tissues through the mechanism of anti-oxidation, maintaining microcirculation and anti-inflammation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of HO-1 on systemic inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).

Methods

Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (n = 10); SAP group (n = 10), SAP model was induced by retrograde injection of 3% sodium taurocholate through pancreatic duct; HO-1 stimulation group (n = 10), SD rats were injected 75 μg/kg hemin intraperitoneally 30 min after induction of SAP; HO-1 inhibition group (n = 10), SD rats were injected 20 μg/kg Zinc porphyrin (Zn-PP) intraperitoneally 30 min after induction of SAP. After 24 h of SAP establishment, tissues were collected for HO-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression, and blood samples were collected for cytokines and biochemical measurements. Meanwhile, the histopathological changes of pancreas and liver tissues were observed.

Results

The expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein were significantly induced by SAP in rat pancreas and liver. Hemin treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α in plasma and tissues, while the IL-10 was significantly increased. Pancreas and liver injury induced by SAP was markedly attenuated by Hemin treatment. Moreover, inhibition of HO-1 expression by Zn-PP administration aggravated the injury caused by SAP.

Conclusions

Induction of HO-1 in early SAP may modulate systemic inflammatory response and prevent pancreas and nearby organs such as liver injury through inhibition of TNF-α and augmentation of IL-10.

Sustained spontaneous partial remission in a pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes

Posted by M Murillo, M Fonolleda, L Bosch, et al. on 2017-09-19 18:55:26

Abstract

Spontaneous, partial and transient remission of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a period that requires minor doses of exogenous insulin and lasts a few months. We present a 18-year-old girl, diagnosed at 12 years with T1D, with spontaneous and partial remission of T1D sustained for more than 6 years.

Abstract

The contribution of DNA methylation to diabetic nephropathy, especially the effect on podocyte integrity, is not clarified. Here we found that albuminuria in a db/db mouse model was markedly attenuated after treatment with a DNA methylation inhibitor. This was accompanied by alleviation of glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, and podocyte injury. The expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1), nuclear factor Sp1, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB)-p65 markedly increased in podocytes in vivo and in vitro under the diabetic state. The increased expression of Dnmt1 was attenuated after treatment with 5-azacytidine or 5-aza-2 -deoxycytidine or Dnmt1 knockdown, accompanied by restored decreased podocyte slit diaphragm proteins resulting from hypermethylation and improved podocyte motility. Further studies found that increased Sp1 and NFκB-p65 interacted in the nucleus of podocytes incubated with high glucose, and Sp1 bound to the Dnmt1 promoter region. The involvement of the Sp1/NFκB-p65 complex in Dnmt1 regulation was confirmed by the observation that Sp1 knockdown using mithramycin A or siRNA decreased Dnmt1 protein levels. The luciferase reporter assay further indicated that Dnmt1 was a direct target of Sp1. Thus, inhibition of DNA methylation may be a new therapeutic avenue for treating diabetic nephropathy. Hence, the Sp1/NFκB p65-Dnmt1 pathway may be exploited as a therapeutic target for protecting against podocyte injury in diabetic nephropathy.

Abstract

Background

The development of complementary treatment strategies that focuses on achieving a balance between adaptive and apoptotic unfolded protein response (UPR), enhancing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis, and thus preserving β cell mass and function is particularly warranted.

Aim

This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of the combined treatment by Quercetin (QUE) and Liraglutide (LIRA) in modulating hyperglycemia, insulin-insensitivity, UPR/ER stress markers, apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation using a high-fat diet/streptozotocin −induced type 2 diabetic rat model.

Methods

Sixty male albino rats were allocated into five equal groups: normal control, diabetic control, LIRA treated diabetic; QUE treated diabetic and combined treatment diabetic groups. Fasting glucose, insulin, CHOP, macrophage inflammatory protein −1 α (MIP-1α) and Bax, Bcl2 levels were estimated by ELISA; mRNA expression levels of the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) were estimated using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, while MDA, advanced oxidation protein products, reduced glutathione levels and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Pancreatic tissues were also subjected to histopathological examination.

Results

The combined treatment with both LIRA and QUE causes significant improvements in all the studied parameters; including XBP1 splicing, CHOP, MIP-1α, Bax/Bcl2 ratio, PDI activity, as well as oxidative stress markers as compared to either treatment alone. It also attenuated pancreatic histopathological damage.

In conclusion

Our study nominates this combination to be used in T2DM to achieve adequate glycaemic control and to preserve optimal β cell function.

Vanillin as a new modulator candidate for renal injury induced by cisplatin in experimental rats

Posted by M M.Elseweidy, S E.Elswefy, M Shawky, et al. on 2017-09-18 20:02:59

Abstract

Cisplatin is commonly prescribed for the treatment of various solid tumors but its use is limited due to certain side effects and renal injury is a true example. Oxidative stress and inflammation may contribute to the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Accordingly, we evaluated the effect of oral vanillin intake (100 mg/kg body weight) daily for 4 weeks to combat this hazard. The present results have demonstrated significant attenuation of oxidative stress and renal injury where reduced glutathione (GSH) showed significant increase along with malondialdehyde (MDA) decrease. Fibrotic markers like fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed also significant decrease in vanillin treated rats as compared with the control group.

Renal function showed also significant improvement where urea and creatinine demonstrated significant decrease and the histopathological study presented a good support to the biochemical markers results. Our conclusion that vanillin is a potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic agent. Additionally, it is a good modulator candidate for the renal injury induced by cisplatin intake.

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