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Assessment of HMGB-1 concentration in tick-borne encephalitis and neuroborreliosis

Posted by P Penza, P Czupryna, O Zajkowska, et al. on 2018-03-21 19:37:05

Abstract

Aim

The aim of the study was to determine HMGB-1 concentration in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients suffering from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and neuroborreliosis (NB). We focused on HMGB-1 measurement in CSF or sera in order to establish whether it could help to differentiate between NB and TBE.

Methods

80 patients with meningitis and meningoencephalitis were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into two groups: Group I - patients with NB (n = 40) and Group II - patients with TBE (n = 40). Diagnosis was made basing on the clinical picture, CSF examination and specific antibodies presence in serum and CSF. The control group for the evaluation of the parameters in serum were healthy blood donors (n = 25), while control group for evaluation of CSF consisted of patients with excluded CNS inflammatory process. Concentrations of HMGB-1 was measured by ELISA method using commercial kit [HMGB-1 Elisa Kit, (EIAab, China)]. The results were statistically analyzed using STATISTICA 10, Gretl, ROC, Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results and Conclusions

HMGB-1 is associated with the development of inflammatory process in the CNS caused by both tick-borne pathogens: viral (TBE) and bacterial (Lyme borreliosis). Measurement of serum HMGB-1 concentration in the early stages of both diseases of CNS may contribute to the differentiation between TBE and NB, which may have clinical impact for patients bitten by ticks.

Abstract

Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is a disorder of organic acid metabolism resulting from a functional defect of the mitochondrial enzyme, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). The main treatments for MMA patients are dietary restriction of propiogenic amino acids and carnitine supplementation. Liver or combined liver/kidney transplantation has been used to treat those with the most severe clinical manifestations. Thus, therapies are necessary to help improve quality of life and prevent liver, renal and neurological complications. Previously, we successfully used the TAT-MTS-Protein approach for replacing a number of mitochondrial-mutated proteins. In this targeted system, TAT, an 11 a.a peptide, which rapidly and efficiently can cross biological membranes, is fused to a mitochondrial targeting sequence (MTS), followed by the mitochondrial mature protein which sends the protein into the mitochondria. In the mitochondria, the TAT-MTS is cleaved off and the native protein integrates into its natural complexes and is fully functional. In this study, we used heterologous MTSs of human, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins, to target the human MCM protein into the mitochondria. All fusion proteins reached the mitochondria and successfully underwent processing. Treatment of MMA patient fibroblasts with these fusion proteins restored mitochondrial activity such as ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxygen consumption, indicating the importance of mitochondrial function in this disease. Treatment with the fusion proteins enhanced cell viability and most importantly reduced MMA levels. Treatment also enhanced albumin and urea secretion in a CRISPR/Cas9-engineered HepG2 MUT (-/-) liver cell line. Therefore, we suggest using this TAT-MTS-Protein approach for the treatment of MMA.

Abstract

Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with behavioral and motor abnormalities. Androst-5-ene-3beta, 17beta-diol (ADIOL), an estrogen receptor (ER)beta agonist, was found to mediate a transrepressive mechanism that selectively modulates the extent of neuroinflammation and, in turn, neurodegeneration. In consensus, ER beta polymorphism was more frequently detected in early‐onset PD patients. Thus, in an approach to elucidate the role of ER beta agonists on PD, our study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of ADIOL, in three dose levels (0.35, 3.5, 35 mg/kg/day), against rotenone (ROT)-induced PD rat model. Amelioration in striatal dopamine (DA), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), and the expression of down-stream inflammatory mediators, as well as apoptotic markers were observed in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN) upon pre-treatment with the three doses of ADIOL. Similarly, light microscopy (LM) examination revealed declined degeneration of neurons upon pretreatment with ADIOL. Significant improvement in nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and reduction of nigral alpha-synuclein densities were also detected after ADIOL pre-treatment with better results frequently achieved with the middle dose (3.5 mg/kg/day). The middle dose of ADIOL showed behavioral improvement, with elevation in the ATP level, which was emphasized by the improvement in mitochondrial integrity observed upon electron microscopy (EM) examination. In conclusion, the present study confirmed for the first time the ability of ADIOL to protect against neuroinflammation and, in turn, neurodegeneration process and motor dysfunction in PD animal model, which was more obviously observed with the middle dose.

Increased plasma and adipose tissue levels of ANGPTL8/Betatrophin and ANGPTL4 in people with hypertension

Posted by M Abu-Farha, P Cherian, D Sriraman, et al. on 2018-03-14 19:52:52

Abstract

Background

Hypertension is a risk factor for both cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Angiopoietin-like proteins (ANGPTLs), mainly ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8, are associated with increased plasma lipid content due to their role in regulating the activity of lipoprotein lipase, a key enzyme in metabolism of the lipoprotein in circulation. Dyslipidaemia is a risk factor for hypertension development; however, the roles of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 in subjects with hypertension have not yet been established. This study compared the plasma and adipose tissue levels of ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 in age- and body mass index-matched subjects with and without hypertension.

Methods

A total of 119 subjects, including 69 hypertensive and 50 non-hypertensive subjects, were enrolled. ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 plasma levels were measured by ELISA, whereas their levels in adipose tissue were assessed via real-time PCR.

Results

We found that ANGPTL4 (202.49 ± 17.44 ng/mL vs. 160.64 ± 10.36 ng/mL, p = 0.04) and ANGPTL8 levels (2310.96 ± 194.88 pg/mL vs. 1583.35 ± 138.27 pg/mL, p = 0.001) were higher in hypertensive subjects than non-hypertensive subjects. However, ANGPTL3 levels were not significantly different between the two populations. Similarly, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 levels were also elevated in subjects with T2D and hypertension than in those with T2D but not hypertension. Additionally, people with highest tertiles of ANGPTL8 had higher odds of having hypertension (odd ratio [OR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = (1.5-9.8), p-Value = 0.005. Similar to its plasma levels, ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 were higher in adipose tissue.

Conclusions

In conclusion, our data illustrate that ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 levels in both plasma and adipose tissues are increased in subjects with hypertension. The elevated levels of ANGPTL4 and ANGPTL8 in hypertensive subjects highlight their potential involvement, their potential role as biomarkers for hypertension and their therapeutic value in hypertension given their roles in regulating lipid metabolism.

Keywords

Hypertension Angiopoietin-like proteins Type-2 diabetes

HIF-1A gene polymorphisms and its protein level in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a case–control study

Posted by B Stypinska, A Pawlik, E Haladyj, et al. on 2018-02-26 22:09:12

Abstract

Objectives

The aim of the study was to identify HIF-1A genetic variants and their possible association with HIF-1alpha, VEGF, KDR, RORc and Foxp3 protein levels, and susceptibility to and severity of RA.

Methods

The HIF-1A gene polymorphisms were genotyped for 587 RA patients and 341 healthy individuals. The HIF-1alpha, VEGF, KDR, RORc and Foxp3serum levels were evaluated.

Results

Under the codominant model, the frequency of the rs12434438 GG genotype was lower in RA patients than in controls (P = 0.02). Under the recessive model (AA + AG vs GG), the association was also significant (OR 3.32; CI 1.19–9.24; P = 0.02). Overall, rs12434438 A/G and rs1951795 A/C are in almost completed linkage disequilibrium with D = 0.96 and r2 = 0.85. The HIF-1A rs1951795 A allele was associated with rheumatoid factor (P = 0.02) and mean value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (P = 0.05). In RA patients with HIF-1A rs12434439 GG genotype, the parameters of disease activity such as DAS-28, VAS score, Larsen score or HAQ score were lower compared to RA patients with the HIF-1A rs12434439 AA genotype. Moreover, we also observed that Foxp3 serum levels were higher, and RORc2 serum levels were lower in RA patients with rs12434439 GG.

Conclusion

The polymorphic HIF-1A rs12434439 GG genotype may play a protective role for RA development.

Keywords

Gene polymorphisms Rheumatoid arthritis HIF-1alpha Angiogenesis Inflammation

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