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Effect of cardamonin on hepatic ischemia reperfusion induced in rats: Role of nitric oxide

Posted by Y Atef, H M.Ei-Fayoumi, M F.Mahmoud, et al. on 2017-10-19 18:51:41


Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is a cellular damage in a hypoxic organ following the restoration of oxygen delivery. It may occur during organ transplantation, trauma and hepatectomies. Nitric oxide (NO) effects during hepatic I/R are complicated. The iNOS-derived NO has a deleterious effect, whereas eNOS-derived NO has a protective effect in liver I/R. Cardamonin (CDN) is an anti-inflammatory molecule and a novel iNOS inhibitor, and Nω-Nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) is a NOS inhibitor. L-Arginine is a precursor of NOS. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of CDN on hepatic I/R and the role of NO. Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (Sham, I/R, CDN, L-NNA and L-arginine). Liver ischemia was induced for 45 min then reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. L-Arginine and CDN ameliorated the deleterious effects of I/R through reducing the oxidative stress and hepatocyte degeneration. Both molecules decreased the elevated inflammatory cytokines and increased the antiapoptotic marker, Bcl2. Both agents increased NO and eNOS expression and decreased iNOS expression. In conclusion, increased NO/eNOS and suppression of iNOS expression have protective effects on I/R injury. While inhibition of eNOS and reduction of NO have deleterious effects on I/R injury. For the first time, we demonstrated that cardamonin improved functional and structural abnormalities of the liver following I/R by improving oxidative stress and inflammation and increasing the availability of NO produced by eNOS. Treatment with cardamonin could be a promising strategy in patients with hepatic I/R injury in different clinical situations.

Resveratrol ameliorated the behavioral deficits in a mouse model of post-traumatic stress disorder

Posted by ZS Zhang, ZK Qiu, JL He, et al. on 2017-10-18 20:26:17


Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has become a major psychiatric and neurological issue. Resveratrol is shown to be effective on depression and anxiety. However, the mechanism of anti-PTSD-like effects of resveratrol remains unknown. The present study aimed to explore the possible molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the anti-PTSD-like effects of resveratrol. Following a 2-day exposure to inescapable electric foot shocks, animals were administered resveratrol (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg, i.g.) during the behavioral tests, which included contextual freezing measurement, elevated plus maze test, staircase test, and open field test. Similar to the positive control drug sertraline (15 mg/kg, i.g.), the behavioral deficits of stressed mice were blocked by resveratrol (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.g.), which reversed the increased freezing time in contextual freezing measurement and the number of rears in the staircase test and blocked the decrease in time and number of entries in open arms in the elevated plus maze test without affecting the locomotor activity in the open field test. In addition, resveratrol (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.g.) antagonized the decrease in the levels of progesterone and allopregnanolone in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, long-term resveratrol attenuated the dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis simultaneously. Collectively, the evidence indicated that the anti-PTSD-like effects of resveratrol were associated with the normalization of biosynthesis of neurosteroids in the brain and prevention of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction.

ITIH4: Effective Serum Marker, Early Warning and Diagnosis, Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Posted by XH Li, B Li, TS Guo, et al. on 2017-09-19 19:49:58


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly lethal malignant tumor evolved from cirrhosis. It is quite significant to seek accurate, easy markers for early warning and diagnosis of HCC. Through prospective cohort follow-up study and mass spectrometry, we discovered and verified a serum marker valuable for early warning and diagnosis. Follow-up observation was performed on cirrhosis patients. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was adopted to detect the serums of patients, and the serum polypeptides with a potential value in early HCC warning and diagnosis were screened. Electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was exploited to identify these screened polypeptides. Moreover, the serum marker concentration was determined by ELISA to validate the clinical value of the serum marker. Among 109 cirrhosis patients followed up for two years, 29 patients (26.6%) finally progressed into HCC. MALDI-TOF MS shows that the concentration of a 3155.66Da polypeptide was significantly different between the patients that progressed into HCC and those not. Through MS/MS identification, it is confirmed that the polypeptide is inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4). The serum ITIH4 concentrations in two groups were measured with ELISA and compared with Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Results show that serum ITIH4 and AFP concentrations were negatively correlated (r=−0.263, p=0.0006), and the ITIH4 concentration had a significant intergroup difference (p=0.000). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve indicates that its predictive value (area under the curve, AUC) is 0.667, superior to AFP. For the patients progressing into HCC, serum samples were separately collected when they were recruited and diagnosed as cirrhosis. Measurement on these samples reveals that ITIH4 was declining during the progression of HCC (p=0.006). By virtue of mass spectrometry, we discovered and identified a biomarker valuable for early HCC warning and diagnosis. This marker overperforms the commonly used AFP, demonstrating a bright prospect.



Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible defense gene which plays a significant role in inflammation. HO-1 protects cells and tissues through the mechanism of anti-oxidation, maintaining microcirculation and anti-inflammation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the role of HO-1 on systemic inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).


Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control group (n = 10); SAP group (n = 10), SAP model was induced by retrograde injection of 3% sodium taurocholate through pancreatic duct; HO-1 stimulation group (n = 10), SD rats were injected 75 μg/kg hemin intraperitoneally 30 min after induction of SAP; HO-1 inhibition group (n = 10), SD rats were injected 20 μg/kg Zinc porphyrin (Zn-PP) intraperitoneally 30 min after induction of SAP. After 24 h of SAP establishment, tissues were collected for HO-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression, and blood samples were collected for cytokines and biochemical measurements. Meanwhile, the histopathological changes of pancreas and liver tissues were observed.


The expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein were significantly induced by SAP in rat pancreas and liver. Hemin treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and TNF-α in plasma and tissues, while the IL-10 was significantly increased. Pancreas and liver injury induced by SAP was markedly attenuated by Hemin treatment. Moreover, inhibition of HO-1 expression by Zn-PP administration aggravated the injury caused by SAP.


Induction of HO-1 in early SAP may modulate systemic inflammatory response and prevent pancreas and nearby organs such as liver injury through inhibition of TNF-α and augmentation of IL-10.

Sustained spontaneous partial remission in a pediatric patient with type 1 diabetes

Posted by M Murillo, M Fonolleda, L Bosch, et al. on 2017-09-19 18:55:26


Spontaneous, partial and transient remission of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a period that requires minor doses of exogenous insulin and lasts a few months. We present a 18-year-old girl, diagnosed at 12 years with T1D, with spontaneous and partial remission of T1D sustained for more than 6 years.

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