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Abstract

Aims/Introduction

To explore angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL-8) levels, and its association with hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) and insulin resistance in patients with different extents of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Materials and Methods

In 48 adults were recruited, of which 12 had no NAFLD (HCL < 5.5%; group 1), 18 had mild NAFLD (5.5% ≤ HCL < 10.0%; group 2) and 18 had moderate-to-severe NAFLD (HCL ≥ 10.0%; group 3). The peripheral insulin sensitivity of all participants was monitored by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (M value), as well as the magnetic resonance image of HCL. Serum ANGPTL-8, blood glucose levels and lipid profiles were also recorded in the study.

Results

Group 3 had a worse metabolic profile, and had the highest ANGPTL-8 level (1,129±351 pg/mL vs 742±252 pg/mL, 765±301 pg/mL, P = 0.001) compared with those in group 1 and group 2. In all metabolic profiles, HCL positively correlated the strongest with ANGPTL-8 (r = 0.436, P = 0.042). Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis showed ANGPTL-8 and alanine aminotransferase were independent determinants of HCL (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, respectively), and these two indexes explained 67.4% of the variation of HCL (P < 0.001).

Conclusions

ANGPTL-8 was positively correlated with hepatocellular lipid content independent of obesity and insulin resistance, indicating that ANGPTL-8 might be a new and important important predictor of the severity of NAFLD.

Abstract

Purpose

We aim to evaluate reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and analyze its possible relationships to OSAS severity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Additionally, we also investigated the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on serum Romo1.

Methods

One hundred and five patients diagnosed with OSAS were classified into the OSAS group, and 41 subjects without OSAS were recruited for the control group. The OSAS group was further divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSAS subgroups. Fifteen patients with moderate and severe OSAS were treated with nCPAP. Serum levels of Romo1, ROS, and CRP were also measured.

Results

Serum Romo1, ROS, and CRP were the lowest in normal subjects and increased across OSAS severities (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that serum Romo1 was positively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), time spent below 90% oxygen saturation (Ts90%), arousal index, ROS, and CRP, and was negatively correlated with minimal oxygen saturation (miniSaO2) (all P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum Romo1 level was significantly associated with AHI and ODI, after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and CRP. After 6 months of nCPAP therapy, serum Romo1, ROS, and CRP were significantly decreased (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

The increase of serum Romo1 in OSAS patients was positively correlated with disease severity. Serum Romo1 may be an important parameter for monitoring the severity of OSAS and treatment efficiency.

Keywords

Romo1, Obstructive sleep apnea, Apnea-hypopnea index, Oxidative stress, ROS

Antibiotic peptide-modified nanostructured titanium surface for enhancing bactericidal property

Posted by C Zhu, WW Zhang, SY Fang, et al. on 2018-01-14 23:04:54

Abstract

The infections associated with titanium-based biomaterials have been one of the most serious postoperative complications in the orthopedic surgery. Great efforts have been made to improve the antimicrobial property of titanium-based biomaterials by virtue of the surface modification strategy. From the biomimetic perspective of vegetation roots anchoring soil, alkali treatment was conducted on metallic titanium to produce a nanoroot-structured surface in the present study; then, antimicrobial peptide was anchored within the nanoroot surface by vacuum extraction and lyophilization. As a result, the obtained antibacterial peptide-leashed titanium surface showed a hierarchical structure combining the designed nanoroot topography and the anchored antibiotic peptide. Furthermore, this modified surface could steadily release for more than 10 h in a time-dependent manner. As a consequence, the elaborate antimicrobial peptide-loaded surface demonstrated a powerful antibacterial and biofilm-resistant capability against two types of Staphylococcus, without significant cytotoxicity. Specifically, Peptide-2 can kill the most planktonic and sessile bacteria for two gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, the integration of antibacterial peptide onto titanium-based implant surface may be a hopeful tool to prevent implant-associated infections in the orthopedic surgery.

Abstract

The present study involves the preparation of cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles (cubsomes) for liver targeting to assess the potential of a formulated bioactive polysaccharide isolated from the hot aqueous extract of Ulva fasciata as an alternative natural agent with anti-hyperlipidaemic activity. Cubosomal nanoparticles were prepared by disrupting the cubic gel phase of the polysaccharide and water in the presence of a surfactant. Different lipid matrices and stabilizers were tested. All the formulations were in the nanosize range and showed sufficient negative charge to inhibit the aggregation of the cubosomes. Drug entrapment efficiencies (EEs%) were determined and in vitro release studies were performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry were used to analyze the loaded cubosomal nanoparticles containing glyceryl monostearate (GMO 2.25 g), poloxamer 407 (0.25 g) and 50 mg of the polysaccharide. A preclinical study comparing the cubic liquid crystalline nanoparticles containing polysaccharide to fluvastatin as a reference drug in hyperlipidaemic rats was conducted. The rats treated with the polysaccharide- loaded cubosomes showed significant decreases in total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and total lipid (TL) compared to the untreated HL rats. In addition, oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers were measured in the HL rats. Compared to the untreated HL rats, the cubosome treated rats showed a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA), whereas insignificant changes were detected in nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Further, vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules (VCAM, ICAM), and myeloperoxidase were demonstrated. A histopathological examination was conducted to study the alterations in histopathological lesions and to document the biochemical results. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the superiority of using a natural lipid regulator such as polysaccharide loaded cubosomes instead of fluvastatin.

Abstract

Background

Acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT) is an abdominal vascular condition. Early recanalization is essential to successful treatment. The aim of the study was to establish rabbit models of ASMVT and assess the time course of intestinal epithelial barrier disruption.

Methods

After surgical exposure of superior mesenteric vein (Sham group), large-vessel (L-group) and small-vessel (S-group) models were established by endothelium damage, stenosis creation, and thrombin injection. At baseline, 6, 9, and 12 h, hemodynamic and serum parameters were tested. Serum from ASMVT patients diagnosed at 24, 36, 48, and 60 h from symptom onset was collected. Intestinal barrier disruption was assessed by tight junction (TJ) protein expression, morphology changes, and bacterial translocation. Mesenteric arteriospasm was measured by flow velocity and intestinal wet/dry weight ratio. The serum level of intestinal fatty acid–binding protein and endotoxin in patients was also measured as an indicator for intestinal barrier function.

Results

Severe acidosis and lacticemia were observed in both the groups. The L-group experienced greater hemodynamic alteration than the S-group. Intestinal barrier disruption was detected by significantly decreased TJ protein expression, histology and ultrastructure injury of TJ, increased permeability, and bacterial translocation, at 9 h in the S-group and 12 h in the L-group. Secondary mesenteric arteriospasm occurred at the same time of complete intestinal barrier disruption and could be a significant cause of bowel necrosis. Significant increased level of intestinal fatty acid–binding protein and endotoxin was found in patients at 48 h in the S-group type and 60 h in the L-group type.

Conclusions

The ASMVT animal models of both the types were first established. The loss of intestinal barrier function occurred at 6 h in the S-group model and 9 h in the L-group model. For clinical patients, the time window extended to 36 h in the S-group type and 48 h in the L-group type.

Keywords:

Mesenteric venous thrombosis; Intestinal epithelial barrier; Acute ischemic injury; Therapeutic time window

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