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Novel effector Treg cell subsets was found

Posted by star on 2017-12-20 17:18:58
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         Regulatory T (Treg) cells are crucial for the maintenance of autoimmunity homeostasis and are also important reason for the formation of tumor-suppressive microenvironments. It has been reported that Treg cells undergo an activation process similar to that of CD4 T cells and eventually differentiate into effector Treg cells, which can secrete inhibitory cytokines and exert immunosuppressive functions. TGF-β, IL-10 is a commonly studied immunosuppressive factor. In recent years, studies have found that Treg cells secrete a new type of inhibitory cytokine IL-35, which has been shown to have strong immunosuppressive capacity both in vivo and in vitro and can cause infectious immunity in infectious diseases and tumors Tolerance. However, due to the lack of suitable antibodies, it is still very difficult to detect IL-35-secreting cells. Known studies are based on the detection of the overall cellular level by RT-PCR and ELISA, but lack of ability to secrete IL-35 Cell deep and detailed understanding.

        In order to further study the inhibitory function of Treg cells, a group of reporter gene mice (Ebi3-Dre-Thy1.1 mice) of IL-35 were constructed using a BAC transgenic technique by a research team led by Xuyu Zhou, Institute of Microbiology of Chinese Academy of Sciences. The expression of Thy 1.1 on the cell surface can be used to indicate the intracellular IL-35 secretion and the function of IL-35 secreting cells can be studied in vivo by injection of Thy 1.1 antibody. The reporter found that the IL-35 secreting cells in mice mainly derived from thymus-derived tTreg cells. Further analysis of the surface molecules and transcriptional profiling revealed that IL-35-Treg secreting IL-35 and IL-10-Treg secreting IL-10 are two groups of c......


     In a new study, researchers from Britain and South Korea using genome editing techniques CRISPR/Cas9 reveals OCT4 in human embryonic development of the first few days. The technology could help people better understand our biology characteristics of early development.

     The researchers used CRISPR/Cas9 block OCT4 gene expression, under normal circumstances, in the first few days of this gene in human embryonic development is active. The research found that the OCT4 are needed to correct formation the blastocyst in human embryonic development. Researchers use mice embryonic and human embryonic stem cells as the research object, make out standing OCT4 inactivation, they use the CRISPR/Cas9 change the DNA for 41human embryo, after 7 days, the embryo development stops, expect the embryo, OCT4 is considered also play an important role in stem cell biology. Pluripotent stem cells could become any type of cells, and they can be obtained from embryos, or let the skin cells and other cells was induced by reprogramming, human embryonic stem cells from developing in human embryonic has a higher level of OCT for that part.
     Researchers believe that produce and use of pluripotent stem cell technology is a great achievement, but the cells are still can't understand how to play a role. To learn more about the different gene that how to cause cells to produce and maintain   pluripotency, will help us to more understand production and the use of stem cells.

 



Progress in targeted therapy of small cell lung cancer

Posted by star on 2017-12-17 17:17:43
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       Small cell lung cancer is the most malignant subtype of lung cancer, accounting for about 15% to 20% of lung cancer patients. Unlike non-small cell lung cancer, there are currently no effective targeted therapies for the treatment of small-cell lung cancer due to the fact that targeted therapeutics such as EGFR and ALK are rare in small cell lung cancer. This study found an effective targeted therapy for small cell lung cancer with N-MYC amplification: synergistic inhibition of N-MYC-expanded small cells by the combination of two small molecule inhibitors (JQ1 and ABT-263) Lung cancer growth.

       The team found that the N-MYC-expanded small cell lung cancer cell line is sensitive to the epigenetic drug, the PET bromodomain inhibitor, JQ1. They found that JQ1 is more sensitive to the BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-263 by inhibiting the expression of BIM protein by N-MYC, thereby enabling N-MYC-expanded small cell lung cancer cells. The combined treatment of JQ1 and ABT-263 effectively interferes with the binding of BIM to BCL-2 and MCL-1, thereby allowing BIM to function to induce apoptosis. Researchers further demonstrated that the combination of JQ1 and ABT-263 effectively inhibits the growth of N-MYC-expanded small cell lung cancer xenografts in a mouse model of small cell lung cancer xenografts. Research work shows that the combined use of JQ1 and ABT-263 may be an effective method for the treatment of N-MYC-amplified small cell lung cancer with potential clinical value.

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Aspirin or longer life for some patients with colon cancer

Posted by star on 2017-12-13 19:19:26
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A Dutch study has shown that taking small doses of aspirin may help to prolong the survival of some patients with colon cancer.

Leiden university medical center researchers underwent surgery between 2001 and 2007, 1000 patients with colon cancer observation analysis, 183 patients found aspirin mortality rate is only 37.2%, did not take aspirin, 817 patients mortality was 48.7%.According to the data, aspirin has certain benefits for colon cancer patients.

Further analysis showed that the adjuvant treatment of aspirin was "most effective" if there was a specific antigen called hla-i in the cancer tissue of colon cancer patients. Conversely, it may not work. Therefore, for patients diagnosed with colon cancer and tumor expression hla-i antigen, the use of aspirin can improve their life expectancy

 

 




A new discovery about diabetes treatment

Posted by star on 2017-12-10 17:59:39
Hits:158

       Insulin is a hormone regulating glucose storage. Insulin resistance predisposes to diabetes and metabolic diseases. The cell stops responding to instructions from the hormone. Restoring insulin sensitivity is an effective approach to prevent and treat diabetes and to reduce the major vascular complications. However, currently available insulin sensitizers have significant adverse effects, such as weight gain due to triglyceride accumulation, fractures and hemodynamic changes.

       In a new study, researchers found insulin inhibits glucose production in the liver by inhibiting FOXO1 to activate G6pase and inhibit glucokinase to promote fat generation , respectively. FOXO1 as inhibition of glucose production is predicted to increase lipogenesis. they found SIN3A is the insulin-sensitive FOXO1 corepressor of glucokinase. Genetic ablation of SIN3A abolishes nutrient regulation of glucokinase without affecting other FOXO1 target genes and lowers glycemia without concurrent steatosis. To extend this work, we executed a small-molecule screen and discovered selective inhibitors of FOXO-dependent glucose production devoid of lipogenic activity in hepatocytes.

       The next step is to optimize these compounds in animal experiments, and lay a foundation for clinical trials, they are likely to develop a new method for safer diabetes treatment.

 

 




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