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MRSA emerged several years before methicillin was discovered

Posted by star on 2017-09-18 01:52:54



      Study shows that Staphylococcus aureus acquired the methicillin-resistance gene in the middle of 1940s. A latest study was shown that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged long before the antibiotic methicillin into clinical practice. It was the widespread use of earlier antibiotics, such as researchers from the UK preferred penicillin to methicillin itself which caused MRSA to emerge.


      The researchers found that S. aureus acquired the gene with methicillin resistance, i.e., mecA , as early as the mid-1940s, which was 14 years before the first use of methicillin. The mecA gene confers resistance by producing a protein called PBP2a, which decreases the binding efficiency of antibiotics via the cell wall of S. aureus. The introduction of penicillin in the 1940s led to the selection of S. aureus strains that carried the methicillin resistance gene.

      What was the origin of the first MRSA and how to trace its evolutionary history? The researchers sequenced the genomes of a unique collection of 209 historic S. aureus isolates. The oldest of these isolates were identified over 50 years ago by the S. aureus reference laboratory of Public Health England and had been stored in their original freeze-dried state. The researchers found the genes in these isolates that confer resistance to numerous other antibiotics, as well as genes associated with decreased susceptibility to disinfectants.


CP Harkins, B Pichon, M Doumith, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged long before the introduction of methicillin into clinical practice. Genome Bio......


      A latest news shown that there was a precisely genetic lifespan calendar, which describes the whole gene regulatory events in the brain of humans and mice. It could control all cell types and conduct the way they worked at different ages.

      Skene et al. studied the genes change at various time points, and found that transcriptome trajectories controlled the gene expression changes in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell-types, which enabled indication of age from tissue samples. Especially, the peak change occurred at 26-year-old human and 5-months mice, which the females showed a delayed peak to the males. Otherwise, the change would greatly affect the expression of synaptic and schizophrenia-susceptibility genes.


      Researchers also found that the calendar caused a major reorganization of the genes when the psychiatric disorders started, like hallucinations, delusion or changes in behavior. It was known that Schizophrenia existed a tendency in families and the probability of having the disease could increase by the connections between nerve cells from the combination of faulty genes. Until now, scientists had assumed that certain situations and environmental factors trigger the condition, but it was unknown if genes could influence the age at which the disease would begin.

      Now the study indicated that age-dependent molecular organization of the brain and mutations in lifespan calendar would interrupt the program in young adults cause schizophrenia. As a crucial factor, the lifespan calendar could predicate the age of the disease appearance. This study announced that the exploration of how the genetic lifespan calendar programs change and manipulate would provide us a new insight of d......

Survivin - a new target for tumor therapy

Posted by star on 2017-09-12 20:11:26



     Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially awarded SurVaxM vaccine "orphan drug" qualification. The vaccine is used for the treatment of glioblastoma, which was developed by Michael Ciesielski-associate professor of the Neurosurgery and Robert Fenstermaker-director of neurosurgery, both in Roswell Park Cancer Institute.

     SurVaxM vaccine is mainly used to inhibit the expression of survivin protein. The survivin protein is a member of the family of apoptotic proteins, with a molecular weight of 16.5 kDa, which could inhibit apoptosis, promote cell proliferation, and induce or enhance angiogenesis. Survivin existed in many types of malignancies, such as lung cancer, rectal cancer, liver cancer and gastric cancer, but rarely expressed in normal human tissue. This ubiquitous expression suggested that survivin might have the anti-tumor effect by being antagonized.

     In bladder transitional cell carcinoma, survivin has become a biomarker for cancer diagnosis, prognosis and predicting bladder or systemic response. In addition, in the preclinical bladder tumor model, inhibiting the survivin expression and / or function can affect tumor cell proliferation and significantly induce spontaneous or chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.

     The products, including survivin antibody, survivin ELISA kit, anti-survivin ELISA kit, survivin CLIA kit and anti-survivin CLIA kit, have independently been developed and produced by EIAab Technology Co. Ltd.

Please enter into for details. Welcome to consult and order!   

Zika virus has oncolytic activity against fighting brain cancer

Posted by star on 2017-09-11 19:48:45




     According to the AFP, glioblastoma is a highly lethal brain cancer that frequently recurs in proximity to the original resection cavity. The scientists studied the use of oncolytic virus therapy against glioblastoma with Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus that induces cell death and differentiation of neural precursor cells in the developing fetus. ZIKV preferentially infected and killed glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) relative to differentiated tumor progeny or normal neuronal cells. The effects against GSCs were not a general property of neurotropic flaviviruses, as West Nile virus indiscriminately killed both tumor and normal neural cells. ZIKV potently depleted patient-derived GSCs grown in culture and in organoids. Moreover, mice with glioblastoma survived substantially longer and at greater rates when the tumor was inoculated with a mouse-adapted strain of ZIKV. The results suggested that ZIKV was an oncolytic virus that can preferentially target GSCs; thus, genetically modified strains that further optimize safety could have therapeutic efficacy for adult glioblastoma patients.

    While Zika was known for causing birth defects like microcephaly and brain damage, it turned out that the virus might be also served as a useful purpose -- fighting brain cancer. In recent studies, researches were showed that Zika could actually take on a hard-to-treated type of brain cancers. Standard forms of therapy could be done well against the majority of the tumor cells, but left behind the stem cells that generated the tumors, allowing them to keep creating more tumors once the originals were removed. But Zika actually worked the opposite -- it targeted the stem cells and skipped over the other tumor cells. So, in......

How Protein Mutations affect the Colorectal Cancer

Posted by star on 2017-09-11 19:46:17




     Assessing the impact of genomic alterations on protein networks is fundamental in identifying the mechanisms that shape cancer heterogeneity. The research team used isobaric labeling to characterize the proteomic landscapes of 50 colorectal cancer cell lines and to decipher the functional consequences of somatic genomic variants. The robust quantification of over 9,000 proteins and 11,000 phosphopeptides on average enabled the de novo construction of a functional protein correlation network, which ultimately exposed the collateral effects of mutations on protein complexes. CRISPR-cas9 deletion of key chromatin modifiers confirmed that the consequences of genomic alterations can propagate through protein interactions in a transcript-independent manner. Lastly, they leveraged the quantified proteome to perform unsupervised classification of the cell lines and to build predictive models of drug response in colorectal cancer. Overall, the team provides a deep integrative view of the functional network and the molecular structure underlying the heterogeneity of colorectal cancer cells.

     The results offer clearer picture of the cellular processes behind bowel cancer, and may enable future tailoring of drug treatments to different bowel cancer patients. For the first time, scientists have completed a detailed study of many of the proteins in bowel cancer cells. Scientists investigated the role proteins play in predicting how common mutations affect proteins in the cancer cells and also whether such proteins are important in predicting the cancer’s response to treatment. The results, published in Cell Reports give scientists a better picture of the cellular processes behind bowel cancer, and could enable resea......

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