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A new discovery about diabetes treatment

Posted by star on 2017-12-10 17:59:39

       Insulin is a hormone regulating glucose storage. Insulin resistance predisposes to diabetes and metabolic diseases. The cell stops responding to instructions from the hormone. Restoring insulin sensitivity is an effective approach to prevent and treat diabetes and to reduce the major vascular complications. However, currently available insulin sensitizers have significant adverse effects, such as weight gain due to triglyceride accumulation, fractures and hemodynamic changes.

       In a new study, researchers found insulin inhibits glucose production in the liver by inhibiting FOXO1 to activate G6pase and inhibit glucokinase to promote fat generation , respectively. FOXO1 as inhibition of glucose production is predicted to increase lipogenesis. they found SIN3A is the insulin-sensitive FOXO1 corepressor of glucokinase. Genetic ablation of SIN3A abolishes nutrient regulation of glucokinase without affecting other FOXO1 target genes and lowers glycemia without concurrent steatosis. To extend this work, we executed a small-molecule screen and discovered selective inhibitors of FOXO-dependent glucose production devoid of lipogenic activity in hepatocytes.

       The next step is to optimize these compounds in animal experiments, and lay a foundation for clinical trials, they are likely to develop a new method for safer diabetes treatment.



Parkinson’s Disease (PD) Cell Therapy Relieves Symptoms in Monkeys

Posted by star on 2017-11-27 17:07:58

    A study published in Nature shows that symptoms in monkey model of PD by grafting dopamine-producing neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs) into the monkeys’ brains.

    Kyoto University neurosurgeon Jun Takahashi and colleagues generated eight IPSC lines from skin or blood cells collected from seven human subjects—three with PD and four without—and derived dopaminergic progenitors from these cell lines. Then, the researchers grafted the reprogrammed cells into the brains of 2- to 3-year-old-male cynomolgus monkeys that had been treated with the neurotoxin MPTP, which kills dopamine-releasing neurons and result in PD-like movement defects.


     The seven monkeys shows a 40% to 50% improvement in symptoms compared to vehicle-injected controls, such as decreases in tremors and increases in spontaneous movements . The authors confirmed that cells derived from both PD patients and healthy donors made dopamine in vivo, at levels about half that of cells in normal monkeys.

     Next steps may be the researches about safety and efficiency of the cells which will be work in the model. Then we get closer ever in the cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD).


How to determine protein stablity

Posted by star on 2017-11-22 17:39:06

     Protein stability is a major concern for biotechnology, food industries, pharmaceuticals, and academic scientists. A common goal that many in vitro protein studies strive for is the creation of an environment in which protein samples can stably retain native conformations. If proteins of interest adopt non-native congregating structures, normal function may be lost. Protein stability is essential for expressing, purifying, and storing proteins and is needed for functional studies using native and recombinant proteins.


      Processes ranging from large-scale industrial protein production and high throughput screening to the more specific pharmaceutical protein-drug interactions and protein crystallization can be impacted. Conditional factors such as buffer pH, salts, mechanical agitation, and temperature are just some of the more common causes of undesired protein aggregation. Protein stability screening is essential as working with proteins can often be challenging and a time-consuming process.


Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), belongs to one of the Thioredoxin (TRX) binding protein , and it contains class inhibitory protein N and C terminal, and a disulfide bond is formed between the Cys-63 and Cys-247 molecules. The disulfide bond combines with the active part of the TRX , thus inhibiting the activity of TRX , participating in a series of oxidative stress reactions in the body, promoting cell's growth and inducing apoptosis, but also it has a variety of biological functions.


                                                                                           Figure 1. The action mechanism between TXNIP and TRX

Recent studies have shown that TXNIP has a close relationship with tumors, and researchers have demonstrated in different ways that the expression of TXNIP in many important human tumor tissues is reduced or absent. And in some cancer cells, the expression of TXNIP increases and the cell cycle stops, and the growth is slow. In clinical studies, the expression of TXNIP was decreased with the increase of malignancy of cancer grade or gastric cancer and bladder cancer. This shows that the expression level of TXNIP can help to control the malignancy of cancer. The expression of TXNIP is related to the occurrence of tumor.

TXNIP research in recent years has become the important t......

PVSRIPO is defined as an adjuvant and cancer immunotherapy potential

Posted by star on 2017-09-22 02:04:29


Tumors grow in the bodies with affecting the microenvironment, which disturb antitumor innate and adaptive immune responses to cause immunosuppressive. Hence, the study defined PVSRIPO as an adjuvant and cancer immunotherapy potential, which was published at Sep.20th on Science.




As the engineered hybrid of poliovirus and rhinovirus, PVSRIPO is a kind of oncolytic viruses that could kill cancer cells without damaging the normal tissues. An oncolytic virus preferred to infect and kill cancer cells by oncolysis and continuously releasing new infectious virus particles or virions. Oncolytic viruses might not only destroy the tumor cells, but also improve the anti-tumor immunity. Enterovirus RIGVIR from ECHO-7 strain was the first oncolytic virus and approved for treatment of skin melanoma in 2004. In 2005, a genetically modified adenovirus named H101 from China was approved for the treatment of head and neck cancer from the CFDA.




In current researches, PVSRIPO was used against recurrent malignant glioma, which was a known treatment-refractory cancer and defined as the World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV. The scientists determined that PVSRIPO improved anticancer immunity in two methods. On the one hand, neoplastic cells released the proteome, and exposed pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns. On the other hand, antigen-presenting cells produced potent, sustained type I interferon against the immunosuppressed microenvironment and then improved the responses of tumor antigen–specific T cell in vitro and an......

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