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Novel genomic tools provide new insight into human immune system

Posted by star on 2018-03-29 18:14:24
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         When the body is under attack from pathogens, the immune system marshals a diverse collection of immune cells to work together in a tightly orchestrated process and defend the host against the intruders. For many decades, immunologists sorted these cells into ever growing numbers of different types and subtypes mainly based on their morphology and phenotype to understand their function. But novel genomic tools are beginning to reveal new, rare cell types as well as unexpected variability and plasticity within groups upending the traditional view of immune cells assigned to the same category as unvarying entities that behave in a constant manner.

 

 

         "Continually evolving genomic tools and single cell analysis technologies are revolutionizing our understanding of the human immune system in health and disease," says Pandurangan Vijayanand, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor and William K. Bowes Jr. Distinguished Professor at LJI who led the study. "But this is just the beginning of the genomic journey. By applying these tools in relevant diseases and cell types we are changing our understanding of the biology of human immune cells."



%CV IN ELISA :HOW TO REDUCE THEM AND WHY THEY ARE IMPORTANT

Posted by star on 2018-03-21 22:38:55
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         Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a method allowing the quantification of a desired marker in a biological sample. Achieving high quality quantification data by ELISA can be very advantageous when compared to more qualitative methods like IHC and Western blotting. For ELISA users, having a low coefficient of variability (CV or %CV) between sample replicates is crucial in demonstrating an assay was well-run and the resultant data are precise and accurate. Reliable assay results are assessed by standardized measures such as coefficient of variability.

        The coefficient of variability is a dimensionless numerical ratio used to describe the level of variability within a population independently of the absolute values of the observations. In statistical analysis of numerical data, if your absolute values are similar, sample populations can be assessed by using standard deviations; when absolute values vary, you must consider using a more standardized approach such as %CV, to assess the precision of a laboratory technique. CV is calculated by dividing the standard deviation (σ) of a set of measurements by the mean (µ) of the set which is then expressed as a percentage of variation to the mean (Figure 1).

 

 

         In ELISA data interpretation, %CV can highlight inconsistencies among sample replicates which is demonstrated in the data as variation among Optical Density (OD) readouts post-assay. These directly reflect the performance of the assay in the hands of the end-user. There are two types of %CVs that are used to express the precision of immunoassay results: intra-assay CV and inter-assay CV. Intra-assay CV is a measure of the variance between data points within an assay, meaning......

Function and application of Epidermal Growth Factor

Posted by star on 2018-03-14 18:50:41
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         In 1962, Cohen first discovered the epidermal growth factor (EGF), which is a small molecule polypeptide widely found in human or animal body, consisting of 53 amino acids. EGF binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the cell membrane to regulate important biological processes together, such as cell differentiation, division and proliferation. Because of the in-depth study on the structure and mechanism of EGF, Montalcini and Cohen won the 1986 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine.

         A large number of studies have shown that EGF can delay the aging of the skin and restore the vitality of the epidermis, so that the skin can restore soft, elastic and normal tension, playing a role of anti-wrinkle. Besides, EGF can activate the basal cells of the skin, which can promote the healing of cutaneous and mucosal wounds, playing a role of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and preventing ulcers. In addition, EGF can also egulate the secretion of gastric acid and digestive, thereby protecting the gastrointestinal mucosa, and promoting mucosal injury repair.

 

 

 

        According to the good physiological characteristics of EGF, it is often used as a medicine widely in the treatment of skin burns, corneal transplants and post-operative wounds, which shows good therapeutic effects. In recent years, EGF is often added to cosmetics as a bioactive agent for sun protection, whitening, anti-aging and other effects, which greatly improves the cosmetics skin care features and the quality and grade of cosmetics.

        Due to the power of EGF, more and more researchers are interested in it. In order to meet the needs o......

New protein targets for cancer-ASK1

Posted by star on 2018-03-12 00:50:28
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          Recently, a study may be able to help us find the new treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Atsushi Matsuzawa who is a professor from Japan with some people using gene silencing technology testing a small molecule mechanism of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase1(ASK1)

          ASK1 is an oxidative stress-responsive kinase that is regulated by various interacting molecules and post-translational modifications. However how these molecules and modifications cooperatively regulate ASK1activity remains largely unknown.ASK1 in responses to various types of stresses including oxidative stress, and subsequently induces multiple cellular responses, such as cell death and inflammation.

          Protein arginine methyltransferase1(PRMT1)which negative regulates ASK1 activation by enhancing its interaction with thioredoxin (Trx) another ASK1-negative regulator.TRIM48 facilitates ASK1 activation by promoting k48-linked poly ubiquitination and degradation of PRMT1.TRIM48 knockdown suppressed oxidative stress-induced ASK1 activation and cell death ,whereas forced expression promoted cancer cell death, whereas forced expression promoted cancer cell death in mouse xenograft model. These results indicate that TRIM48 facilitates oxidative stress-induced ASK1activation and cell death through ubiquitination dependent degradation of PRMT1

          The study provides a cell death mechanism fine-tuned by the crosstalk between enzymes that engage various types of post-translational modifications. In the future, if we can reveal mechanism of ASK1, it will get great development for the treatment of diseases.

 



New NK cell immunotherapy can effectively treat a variety of leukemia

Posted by star on 2018-03-05 17:19:40
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       Natural killer cells (natural killer cell, NK) is an important immune cells in the body, not only related to anti-tumor, anti-virus infection and immunity, and in some cases, to participate in allergic reactions and autoimmune disease.

       In recent years, more and more studies have revealed the biological characteristics of NK cells and their ability to recognize cancer cells. There has also been a breakthrough in immunotherapy to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer. But immunotherapy based on NK cells has not been studied much.

 

         Researchers from the karolinska institute tested immunotherapy based on NK cells in 16 patients with drug-resistant leukemia. These patients were treated with activated NK cells obtained from the associated donor. Six of the patients responded to the treatment, and some even went away completely, becoming asymptomatic. Five of the six patients had improved to the status of a treatable stem cell transplant, which they were unable to receive before receiving NK cell immunotherapy. Three of them have survived for more than three years and one for more than five years. At the same time, NK cell therapy did not produce a serious side effect.

         These results bring new approaches to new clinical research, and the study offers new hope for further improvements in the optimization of next-generation NK cell immunotherapy.



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