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Lose weight might be induced by the cancer

Posted by star on 2017-09-20 20:32:55



      Scientists found that Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) could cause weight loss, which would be an important drug target for mediating weight loss. GDF15 was a protein which was first identified in mice with prostate tumors and later found the relevance to the weight of people with cancer.  Studies revealed that the regulation of GDF15 in brain would cause weight loss of the mice. Further, how the protein functioned?



      Researchers screened more 4,000 membrane proteins for GDF15, together with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and discovered that only GDNF family receptor α–like (GFRAL) protein showed the specific affinity to GDF15.  In human brain sections, GDNF expression was localized to two areas of the brain: the area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract. GFRAL was a receptor with alone functioning on brain development. After being treated with GDF15, GFRAL was increasingly expressed and then stimulating the RET phosphorylation. RET could be a coreceptor with the GDNF receptor family to form a complex.

      Targeted deletions Gfral of the mice would cause weight increasing and aggravate the glucose intolerance, even fed a diet with high fat or control the......

An immune clock of human pregnancy

Posted by star on 2017-09-19 22:54:13



      The research was defined the precise timing of changes in immune function and regulation during pregnancy, which was published at Sep. 1th on Science.

      During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must balance two parts, tolerating the fetal allograft and preserving immune mechanisms for self-protection. Otherwise, the dysregulation of immunological mechanisms in pregnancy is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm birth and other pregnancy-related complications. Hence, whether there is a chronology of precisely timed immune adaptations that associated with pathologies of gestation during pregnancy, such as preterm birth?


Fig.1 The pregnant woman

      For solving the problem, the scientists combined the high-parameter functional profiling of peripheral immune cells with a previously unknown cell signaling–based Elastic Net (csEN) algorithm to predict the model of interrelated immune characters, which could accurately indicate the timing of immunological adaptations during the whole period of pregnancy.


Fig.2 A prospectively validated csEN model accurately predicts dynamic changes of the maternal immune system over the course of pregnancy



Microbes potentially influence the efficacy of cancer therapies

Posted by star on 2017-09-18 23:51:35



      A study published 4 days ago on Science was shown that bacteria could potentially mediate tumor resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine, which was commonly used for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC).






      In the research, Geller et al. showed that Gammaproteobacteria expressed cytidine deaminase (CDDL), which could metabolize gemcitabine (2’, 2’-difluorodeoxycytidine) into its inactive form, 2’, 2’ -difluorodeoxyuridine. It had been confirmed in a colon cancer mouse model that the tumors became resistant to gemcitabine. However, gemcitabine resistance would be eliminated by the mixture of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin.




      These results suggested that the efficacy of an existing therapy for PDAC might be improved as the cooperation with antibiotics.




DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5043


MRSA emerged several years before methicillin was discovered

Posted by star on 2017-09-18 01:52:54



      Study shows that Staphylococcus aureus acquired the methicillin-resistance gene in the middle of 1940s. A latest study was shown that methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged long before the antibiotic methicillin into clinical practice. It was the widespread use of earlier antibiotics, such as researchers from the UK preferred penicillin to methicillin itself which caused MRSA to emerge.


      The researchers found that S. aureus acquired the gene with methicillin resistance, i.e., mecA , as early as the mid-1940s, which was 14 years before the first use of methicillin. The mecA gene confers resistance by producing a protein called PBP2a, which decreases the binding efficiency of antibiotics via the cell wall of S. aureus. The introduction of penicillin in the 1940s led to the selection of S. aureus strains that carried the methicillin resistance gene.

      What was the origin of the first MRSA and how to trace its evolutionary history? The researchers sequenced the genomes of a unique collection of 209 historic S. aureus isolates. The oldest of these isolates were identified over 50 years ago by the S. aureus reference laboratory of Public Health England and had been stored in their original freeze-dried state. The researchers found the genes in these isolates that confer resistance to numerous other antibiotics, as well as genes associated with decreased susceptibility to disinfectants.


CP Harkins, B Pichon, M Doumith, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus emerged long before the introduction of methicillin into clinical practice. Genome Bio......


      A latest news shown that there was a precisely genetic lifespan calendar, which describes the whole gene regulatory events in the brain of humans and mice. It could control all cell types and conduct the way they worked at different ages.

      Skene et al. studied the genes change at various time points, and found that transcriptome trajectories controlled the gene expression changes in neuronal, glial and endothelial cell-types, which enabled indication of age from tissue samples. Especially, the peak change occurred at 26-year-old human and 5-months mice, which the females showed a delayed peak to the males. Otherwise, the change would greatly affect the expression of synaptic and schizophrenia-susceptibility genes.


      Researchers also found that the calendar caused a major reorganization of the genes when the psychiatric disorders started, like hallucinations, delusion or changes in behavior. It was known that Schizophrenia existed a tendency in families and the probability of having the disease could increase by the connections between nerve cells from the combination of faulty genes. Until now, scientists had assumed that certain situations and environmental factors trigger the condition, but it was unknown if genes could influence the age at which the disease would begin.

      Now the study indicated that age-dependent molecular organization of the brain and mutations in lifespan calendar would interrupt the program in young adults cause schizophrenia. As a crucial factor, the lifespan calendar could predicate the age of the disease appearance. This study announced that the exploration of how the genetic lifespan calendar programs change and manipulate would provide us a new insight of d......

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