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Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes cryptococccosis in immunocompromised patients as well as immunocompetent individuals. Host cell surface receptors that recognize C. neoformans have been widely studied. However, intracellular sensing of this pathogen is still poorly understood. Our previous studies have demonstrated that both biofilm and acapsular mutant of C. neoformans are able to activate the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. In the current study, it was found that opsonization-mediated internalization of encapsulated C. neoformans also activated the canonical NLRP3–apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC)–caspase-1 inflammasome. In addition, the internalized C. neoformans activated the noncanonical NLRP3–ASC–caspase-8 inflammasome as well, which resulted in robust IL-1β secretion and cell death from caspase-1–deficient primary dendritic cells. Interestingly, we found that caspase-1 was inhibitory for the activation of caspase-8 in dendritic cells upon C. neorformans challenge. Further mechanistic studies showed that both phagolysosome membrane permeabilization and potassium efflux were responsible for C. neoformans–induced activation of either the canonical NLRP3–ASC–caspase-1 inflammasome or the noncanonical NLRP3–ASC–caspase-8 inflammasome. Moreover, challenge with zymosan also led to the activation of the noncanonical NLRP3–ASC–caspase-8 inflammasome in cells absent for caspase-1. Collectively, these findings uncover a number of novel signaling pathways for the innate immune response of host cells to C. neoformans infection and suggest that manipulating NLRP3 signaling may help to control fungal challenge.



129-AA protein FSHB

Posted by thomas on 2015-11-24 17:32:47
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FSHB(the gonadotropins follicle-stimulating hormone)is a 129-AA protein. FSH cells in response to the stimulus and gonadotropin-releasing hormone surge, indicate that gm increase fluorescence, and estrogen exposure leads to the decrease in the number of cells and transgenic  fluorescence. growth factor receptor expression, and provide necessary evidence of FSH - dependent increase of epidermal growth factor receptor function.Our results indicate an unexpected role FSH in establishing signal axis coordinate events of ovulation and may lead to certain types of diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

 

Expression and function of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) ovaries are thought to be limited for a long time. FSHR expression has the function of regulating pregnancy myometrium.The existence of FSHR have interaction with the placenta angiogenesis. 

 

Analysis of transgenic mice in which FSHR is  short of fetal portions of the placenta revealed adverse effects on fetoplacental development . Our data further proof  FSHB and CGA mRNAs in the placenta and uterus,  in accordance with potential local sources of FSH. Collectively,  our data show that so far are not appreciate the role of the extragonadal FSHR female reproductive physiology.



Increasing incidence of acute kidney injury

Posted by thomas on 2015-11-15 04:31:39
Hits:337

Increasing incidence of acute kidney injury

 

Several studies reporting an increased incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) over time have garnered significant recent attention. The report shows that the incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients is high, the adult is 21.6%, and the children are 33.7%, the mortality rate of adult AKI patients is as high as 23.9%. Prior studies have reported that pregnancy-associated AKI at the time of delivery has become more common.

Although this has been observed in samples of the general populationand specific subgroups of patients (eg, those undergoing cardiac surgery), there may be heterogeneity across disease groups and the risk may be changing over time. Amin et al, for example, reported that among patients hospitalized across 56 US centers from 2000 to 2008 with acute myocardial infarction, the incidence of AKI has decreased. But for researchers, there are fundamental knowledge gaps in our understanding of AKI epidemiology. More research is urgently needed to quantify accurately the public health burden of AKI.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co.,Ltd is strong in technology, product, dedicated to provide quality and reliable for all users of products, is committed to providing high accuracy of the enzyme linked immunosorbent kit (ELISA) products to detect the concentration of acute kidney injury(AKI) related indicators, like NGAL(Cat No.E1388)、Creatinine(Cat No.2197Ge), et al. For more details, please visit our official website (http://www.eiaab.com). The majority of scientific research personnel can be ordered.

 

 

 

 

References

[1] A.P. Amin, A.C. Salisbury, P.A. McCullough, et al. Trends in the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med, 172 (2012), pp. 246–253

[2] Hsu, C.E. McCulloch, D. Fan, J......

Aquaporin-1

Posted by thomas on 2015-11-15 04:30:04
Hits:261

Aquaporin-1 is a widely expressed water channel, whose physiological function has been most thoroughly characterized in the kidney.It forms a water-specific channel that provides the plasma membranes of red cells and kidney proximal tubules with high permeability to water, thereby permitting water to move in the direction of an osmotic gradient.

It is found in a number of tissues including erythrocytes, renal tubules, retinal pigment epithelium, heart, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas.

Aquaporin-1 is assotiate multiple tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, for example , the protein level is up-regualaion in breaste cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer.

Many diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and some neurological diseases are due to membrane function disorder . scientists research cell membrane channel which could look for specific reasons to develope appropriate drugs.

Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major intrinsic protein.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co.,Ltd is strong in technology, product, dedicated to provide quality and reliable for all users of products. The aquaporin-1 ELISA Kit for human (Cat No.E0579h) is high sensitivity and specificity.

 There are many other products sold in our company related to the female sex hormone, such as

aquaporin-2(Cat No.E0580h), aquaporin-3(Cat No.E0581h),aquaporin-4 (Cat No.E0582h ), aquaporin-5 (Cat No.E058

HIF 1 - alpha HIF1A human protein-coding genes

Posted by thomas on 2015-11-15 04:28:19
Hits:223

Also known as HIF - 1 - alpha, HIF 1 - alpha HIF1A human protein-coding genes. Two alternative transcripts encoding  different subtypes were confirmed. HIF1 heterodimeric basic helix - loop - helix structure composed of Hif1a, alpha subunit (protein), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear transport protein (Arnt), beta subunits.

Encoding protein HIF1 bHLH - PAS transcription factors exist in mammalian cells in low oxygen concentration.It plays an important role in cell, the system's response to hypoxia. this is a kind of oxygen induced factor, a family, including Hif1a, Hif2a and Hif3a

The transcription factor induced by hypoxia HIF1 activate autophagy, alienation of the pathways involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis. The research results show that HIF1A, all kinds of stimulation, is an important intermediary EDN2 mRNA expression.Results may explain HIF1A - dependent gene levels (EDN2 and VEGF) in developing CL.

The rich HIF-1alpha (its subsequent activities) is regulated transcriptionally in an NF-κB-dependent manner. In addition, coordinate activities of the prolyl hydroxylase to keep the right balance of HIF - 1 alpha stage after protein translation.



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