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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

Posted by star on 2016-09-05 23:15:01
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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine which produced naturally by macrophages in bacterial infection or other immune response. It is a small molecule protein that could directly cause tumor cell death or cooperate with interferon. TNF can be divided into two types according to their origin and structure, named TNF-α and TNF-β respectively. TNF-α was produced by macrophages accompanied with LPS′s stronger stimulant mainly, and might also secreted by T cells or NK cells in some stimulating factor (eg. PMA). While TNF-β was mainly produced by activated T cells, and with the stimulation of antigen and mitogen could produce high levels.

The human TNF gene (TNF-α) was cloned in 1985. It maps to chromosome 6p21.3, spans about 3 kb and contains 4 exons. The last exon codes for more than 80% of the secreted protein. The 3' UTR of TNF-α contains an AU-rich element (ARE). TNF is primarily produced as a 212-amino acid-long typeⅡtrans-membrane protein arranged in stable homotrimers. From this membrane-integrated form the soluble homotrimeric cytokine (sTNF) is released via proteolytic cleavage by the metalloprotease TNF alpha converting enzyme (TACE, also called ADAM17). The soluble 51 kDa trimeric sTNF tends to dissociate at concentrations below the nanomolar range, thereby losing its bioactivity. The secreted form of human TNF-α takes on a triangular pyramid shape, and weighs around 17kDa. Both the secreted and the membrane bound forms are biologically active, although the specific function of each is controversial. But, both forms do have overlapping and distinct biology activities. The common house mouse TNF-α and human TNF are structurally different. The 17kDa TNF protomer (185-amino acid-long) is composed of two antiparallel β-pleated sheets with antiparallel β-strands, forming a 'jelly roll' β-structure, which......

Osteoactivin, OA

Posted by star on 2016-09-05 02:26:36
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In 1995, GPNMB gene was cloned from metastatic melanoma cells, which over-expression had been showed to reduce tumor growth, so it is known as glycoprotein (trans-membrane) non-metastatic melanoma protein B. Later, it was also found in osteopetrosis animal model study in 2001, which is also named Osteoactivin (OA).

There are two subtypes of OA: one is non-glycosylated type I trans-membrane protein; the other is highly glycosylated secreted glycoprotein. OA is expressed with different levels in bone, liver, kidney and other tissues, and also has many biological functions, such as involved in a variety of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis and other physiological processes. Research OA in different bone cells of autocrine or paracrine function, will further understand its role in bone metabolism, and provide new ideas for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of related diseases.

Research the over-expression of OA and OA on hepatic carcinoma cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and metastasis ability changes, further clarify the role of OA in the process of cell invasion and metastasis in hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that OA can be used as a potential target for the treatment of hepatic cancer.

Wuhan EIAab Science Co., Ltd is strong in technology, product, dedicated to provide quality and reliable products for all users. The human Osteoactivin, (OA) ELISA Kit (Cat No.E2770h) is high sensitivity and specificity.



Detecting LTA with an ELISA Kit

Posted by star on 2016-08-30 02:26:08
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Lipoteichoic acid, or LTA, is a chemical that is found in certain types of bacteria. It is commonly regarded as a harmful substance and medicines such as antibiotics are often developed to inhibit its contact with human cells. In studies with animals, LTA can lead to meningitis, arthritis, periodontal lesions, as well as producing other negative effects. Lab workers can detect the presence of LTA with specially formulated lipoteichoic acid ELISA kits.

 

Please visit or order it by http://eiaab.com/entries/detail/10067_EIAAB .



Beta-defensin 1

Posted by star on 2016-08-29 22:58:35
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Defensins comprise a subclass of small, cysteine-rich, cationic antimicrobial peptides produced by higher organisms. Mammalian defensins are further classified into α-defensins and β-defensins based on both precursor and gene structure, as well as a pattern of six cysteines forming three disulfide bones and an overall length of 25-45 amino acids. The β-Defensins are mainly activated against Gram-negative bacteria and yeast, although many also have activity against Gran-positive bacteria.

The human β-defensin 1 (hBD1), which has 36 amino acids, was originally isolated from hemofiltrates of patients with advanced renal failure. The hBD1 gene is constitutively expressed in the genitourinary tract, respiratory tract and placental tissue, its expression is not affected by the production of in?ammatory mediators.

The hBD-1 crystal structure has been parsed (Fig. 1). The monomer of hBD1 displays a fold with a three-stranded β-sheet stabilized by three disulfide bonds, similar to that of hBD2 and bovine β-defensin 12.

 

Fig. 1 The crystal structure of human beta–defensin 1 (From reference 3)

hBD-1 was a significant factor pathophysiologically in infectious renal diseases. hBD-1 is probably the most important antimicrobial peptide in urinary and respiratory epithelial tissues. It is unique in its constitutive expression, but is still capable of up-regulation upon inflammation or microbial stimuli. It was not clear whether hBD-1 responded to infection and if this response reflects more secretion from normal epithelium or release from damaged cells.

 

Wuhan EIAab Science Co.,Ltd is advantage in technology, product, dedicated to provide quality and reliable for all users of products. Our company has developed beta-defense 1 protein of different genus ......

Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)

Posted by star on 2016-08-29 22:37:39
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Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a kind of catalytic superoxide by disproportionation reaction which is converted into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide enzyme. It widely exists in all kinds of animals, plants, microorganisms. It is an important antioxidant, protecting cells exposed to oxygen.

SOD is found by Irwin Fridovich and Joe McCord for the first time. They were previously thought to be a few metal proteins of unknown function.  SOD exists in the several common forms: they're in, manganese, or iron, copper and zinc or nickel as a cofactor.

In the human body (similar to the most other mammals and chordata), SOD also contains three types: SOD1 positioning in the cytoplasm; SOD2 located in the mitochondria; SOD3 located outside the cell. SOD1 and SOD3 active site contains copper and zinc, whereas SOD2 containing manganese. Their genes were located in chromosome 21.

Superoxide is one of the major active oxygen in the cells, so the SOD has played a key role in antioxidants. SOD plays an important physiological role, the lack of the enzyme after genetically engineered mice suffer from serious disease. For example, lack of SOD2 mice in a few days after birth are died of severe oxidative stress; lack of SOD1 mice have a wide range of pathological characteristic, including HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), and the quality of the muscles that related to age speed reduced, cataract occurred early and the life reduced; Lack of SOD3 mice showed no obvious flaws and have normal life, but they are more prone to high oxygen injury. Eliminate any kind of SOD of mice easier to die in the oxide production of reagents, such as paraquat and diquat. Flies lacking of SOD1 were significantly shorten the life, and the lack of SOD2 would die before birth. Elegans knockout of SOD don't lead to serious physiological disorders. The knockout or lack of SOD1 mutations in saccharomyces cerevisiae grow in anaerobic environment is very bad, and lead to second peak growth......

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