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Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), belongs to one of the Thioredoxin (TRX) binding protein , and it contains class inhibitory protein N and C terminal, and a disulfide bond is formed between the Cys-63 and Cys-247 molecules. The disulfide bond combines with the active part of the TRX , thus inhibiting the activity of TRX , participating in a series of oxidative stress reactions in the body, promoting cell's growth and inducing apoptosis, but also it has a variety of biological functions.


                                                                                           Figure 1. The action mechanism between TXNIP and TRX

Recent studies have shown that TXNIP has a close relationship with tumors, and researchers have demonstrated in different ways that the expression of TXNIP in many important human tumor tissues is reduced or absent. And in some cancer cells, the expression of TXNIP increases and the cell cycle stops, and the growth is slow. In clinical studies, the expression of TXNIP was decreased with the increase of malignancy of cancer grade or gastric cancer and bladder cancer. This shows that the expression level of TXNIP can help to control the malignancy of cancer. The expression of TXNIP is related to the occurrence of tumor.

TXNIP research in recent years has become the important t......

PVSRIPO is defined as an adjuvant and cancer immunotherapy potential

Posted by star on 2017-09-22 02:04:29


Tumors grow in the bodies with affecting the microenvironment, which disturb antitumor innate and adaptive immune responses to cause immunosuppressive. Hence, the study defined PVSRIPO as an adjuvant and cancer immunotherapy potential, which was published at Sep.20th on Science.




As the engineered hybrid of poliovirus and rhinovirus, PVSRIPO is a kind of oncolytic viruses that could kill cancer cells without damaging the normal tissues. An oncolytic virus preferred to infect and kill cancer cells by oncolysis and continuously releasing new infectious virus particles or virions. Oncolytic viruses might not only destroy the tumor cells, but also improve the anti-tumor immunity. Enterovirus RIGVIR from ECHO-7 strain was the first oncolytic virus and approved for treatment of skin melanoma in 2004. In 2005, a genetically modified adenovirus named H101 from China was approved for the treatment of head and neck cancer from the CFDA.




In current researches, PVSRIPO was used against recurrent malignant glioma, which was a known treatment-refractory cancer and defined as the World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV. The scientists determined that PVSRIPO improved anticancer immunity in two methods. On the one hand, neoplastic cells released the proteome, and exposed pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns. On the other hand, antigen-presenting cells produced potent, sustained type I interferon against the immunosuppressed microenvironment and then improved the responses of tumor antigen–specific T cell in vitro and an......

Lose weight might be induced by the cancer

Posted by star on 2017-09-20 20:32:55



      Scientists found that Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15) could cause weight loss, which would be an important drug target for mediating weight loss. GDF15 was a protein which was first identified in mice with prostate tumors and later found the relevance to the weight of people with cancer.  Studies revealed that the regulation of GDF15 in brain would cause weight loss of the mice. Further, how the protein functioned?



      Researchers screened more 4,000 membrane proteins for GDF15, together with fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and discovered that only GDNF family receptor α–like (GFRAL) protein showed the specific affinity to GDF15.  In human brain sections, GDNF expression was localized to two areas of the brain: the area postrema and nucleus of the solitary tract. GFRAL was a receptor with alone functioning on brain development. After being treated with GDF15, GFRAL was increasingly expressed and then stimulating the RET phosphorylation. RET could be a coreceptor with the GDNF receptor family to form a complex.

      Targeted deletions Gfral of the mice would cause weight increasing and aggravate the glucose intolerance, even fed a diet with high fat or control the......

An immune clock of human pregnancy

Posted by star on 2017-09-19 22:54:13



      The research was defined the precise timing of changes in immune function and regulation during pregnancy, which was published at Sep. 1th on Science.

      During pregnancy, the maternal immune system must balance two parts, tolerating the fetal allograft and preserving immune mechanisms for self-protection. Otherwise, the dysregulation of immunological mechanisms in pregnancy is increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of preterm birth and other pregnancy-related complications. Hence, whether there is a chronology of precisely timed immune adaptations that associated with pathologies of gestation during pregnancy, such as preterm birth?


Fig.1 The pregnant woman

      For solving the problem, the scientists combined the high-parameter functional profiling of peripheral immune cells with a previously unknown cell signaling–based Elastic Net (csEN) algorithm to predict the model of interrelated immune characters, which could accurately indicate the timing of immunological adaptations during the whole period of pregnancy.


Fig.2 A prospectively validated csEN model accurately predicts dynamic changes of the maternal immune system over the course of pregnancy



Microbes potentially influence the efficacy of cancer therapies

Posted by star on 2017-09-18 23:51:35



      A study published 4 days ago on Science was shown that bacteria could potentially mediate tumor resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine, which was commonly used for the treatment of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC).






      In the research, Geller et al. showed that Gammaproteobacteria expressed cytidine deaminase (CDDL), which could metabolize gemcitabine (2’, 2’-difluorodeoxycytidine) into its inactive form, 2’, 2’ -difluorodeoxyuridine. It had been confirmed in a colon cancer mouse model that the tumors became resistant to gemcitabine. However, gemcitabine resistance would be eliminated by the mixture of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin.




      These results suggested that the efficacy of an existing therapy for PDAC might be improved as the cooperation with antibiotics.




DOI: 10.1126/science.aah5043


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