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Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), retinol-binding protein (RBP)4, and heat shock proteins (hsp) are markers of tubular function and apoptosis, accompanying chronic kidney disease (CKD) from its earliest stages. Fractional excretion of proteins with urine is a marker of tubular damage. The aim of study was to assess the usefulness of fractional excretion (FE) of VDBP, RBP4, HSF1 and Hsp27 as markers of tubular damage in the course of CKD.


The study group consisted of 70 children with CKD stages 1–5, treated conservatively, and 12 age-matched controls with normal kidney function. The serum and urine concentrations of VDBP, RBP4, HSF1 and Hsp27 were assessed by ELISA. The fractional excretion of analyzed parameters was calculated according to the formula: ([parameter urine concentration]?×?[creatinine serum concentration])?/?([parameter serum concentration]?×?[creatinine urine concentration])×100%.


The FE values of all parameters exceeded 1% in CKD stage 2. However, the values of FE have raised significantly versus control group no sooner than CKD stage 2 (RBP4 and HSF1), stage 3 (VDBP) or stage 4 (Hsp27).


Fractional excretion of RBP4 and HSF1 with urine may become a valuable marker, assessing the damage of tubular cells in children with CKD.



The study covers an evaluation of the influence of extracts (1–50 μg/ml), isolated from aerial parts of nine Trifolium L. species (i.e. T. alexandrinum, T. fragiferum, T. hybridum, T. incarnatum, T. pallidum, T. pratense, T. resupinatum var. majus, T. resupinatum var. resupinatum and T. scabrum) on haemostatic properties of blood plasma.


The clot formation and fibrinolysis assay (CFF), blood clotting times, the extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation pathway-dependent polymerization of plasma fibrin were measured. The effects of plant extracts on amidolytic activity of thrombin were also evaluated and compared with argatroban, an antithrombotic drug. Cytotoxicity was assessed in a model of blood platelets and as the viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Key findings

While no changes in blood clotting times or fibrinolytic properties of blood plasma were found, some fractions impaired the blood plasma coagulation induced by the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Reduction in the maximal velocity of fibrin polymerization was also observed in the clot formation and fibrinolysis assay. No cytotoxicity of Trifolium extracts towards the investigated cells was recorded.


The most efficient anticoagulant activity in plasma was found for T. fragiferum and T. incarnatum extracts, while the T. alexandrinum fraction was the most effective inhibitor of thrombin amidolytic activity.

Dexmedetomidine and Magnesium Sulfate: A Good Combination Treatment for Acute Lung Injury?

Posted by E Dogan, M Kuyumcu, F Celik, et al. on 2018-01-30 22:21:55


Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and dexmedetomidine (dex) in a model of acute lung injury (ALI). We determined whether concomitant administration decreased the inflammatory effects of hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced ALI in a synergistic manner. Materials and Methods: In this study, 42 Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into six groups: Group S (saline), Group SV (saline + mechanical ventilation), Group HCl (HCl), Group Dex (Dex), Group Mag (MgSO4), and Group DM (Dex + MgSO4). All groups except Group S were mechanically ventilated prior to HCl-induced ALI. Saline or HCl was administered via tracheostomy. Prior to treatment, HCl was administered to Group HCl, Group Dex, Group Mag, and Group DM to induce ALI. Dex and MgSO4 were administered intraperitoneally. The rats were monitored for 4 h after treatment to measure oxidative stress parameters in blood, and prolidase enzyme activity. Lung tissue damage were determined via histopathology. Results: A significant increase in heart rate and rapid desaturation was observed in HCl-administered groups. Treatment administration decreased the pulse values. Increased saturation values and decreased oxidative stress indices were observed in groups that were subsequently administered Dex and MgSO4. Serum prolidase activity increased significantly in Group HCl. Severe pathological findings were detected following HCl-induced ALI. Group Mag showed greater improvement in the pathology of HCl-induced ALI than did Group Dex. Administration of both Dex and MgSO4 did not improve the pathological scores. Conclusions: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Dex and MgSO4 ameliorated the detrimental effects of HCI-induced ALI. However, adverse effects on hemodynamics and lung damage were observed when the two drugs were administered together.



To explore angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL-8) levels, and its association with hepatocellular lipid content (HCL) and insulin resistance in patients with different extents of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Materials and Methods

In 48 adults were recruited, of which 12 had no NAFLD (HCL < 5.5%; group 1), 18 had mild NAFLD (5.5% ≤ HCL < 10.0%; group 2) and 18 had moderate-to-severe NAFLD (HCL ≥ 10.0%; group 3). The peripheral insulin sensitivity of all participants was monitored by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (M value), as well as the magnetic resonance image of HCL. Serum ANGPTL-8, blood glucose levels and lipid profiles were also recorded in the study.


Group 3 had a worse metabolic profile, and had the highest ANGPTL-8 level (1,129±351 pg/mL vs 742±252 pg/mL, 765±301 pg/mL, P = 0.001) compared with those in group 1 and group 2. In all metabolic profiles, HCL positively correlated the strongest with ANGPTL-8 (r = 0.436, P = 0.042). Multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis showed ANGPTL-8 and alanine aminotransferase were independent determinants of HCL (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, respectively), and these two indexes explained 67.4% of the variation of HCL (P < 0.001).


ANGPTL-8 was positively correlated with hepatocellular lipid content independent of obesity and insulin resistance, indicating that ANGPTL-8 might be a new and important important predictor of the severity of NAFLD.



We aim to evaluate reactive oxygen species modulator 1 (Romo1) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and analyze its possible relationships to OSAS severity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Additionally, we also investigated the effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on serum Romo1.


One hundred and five patients diagnosed with OSAS were classified into the OSAS group, and 41 subjects without OSAS were recruited for the control group. The OSAS group was further divided into mild, moderate, and severe OSAS subgroups. Fifteen patients with moderate and severe OSAS were treated with nCPAP. Serum levels of Romo1, ROS, and CRP were also measured.


Serum Romo1, ROS, and CRP were the lowest in normal subjects and increased across OSAS severities (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that serum Romo1 was positively correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), time spent below 90% oxygen saturation (Ts90%), arousal index, ROS, and CRP, and was negatively correlated with minimal oxygen saturation (miniSaO2) (all P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum Romo1 level was significantly associated with AHI and ODI, after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, and CRP. After 6 months of nCPAP therapy, serum Romo1, ROS, and CRP were significantly decreased (P < 0.05).


The increase of serum Romo1 in OSAS patients was positively correlated with disease severity. Serum Romo1 may be an important parameter for monitoring the severity of OSAS and treatment efficiency.


Romo1, Obstructive sleep apnea, Apnea-hypopnea index, Oxidative stress, ROS

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